4/2018 - ATLANTIS


The FOURTH number of Atlantis of 2018 (WINTER), dedicates the Dossier to '68 with all the legal scope that has historically involved. In the next issue the first of 2019 will continue the appointment with the great historical events of the years ending in nine.
In this issue, the heading on World and Diseases with the MERS continues.
The country Focus, signed by Domenico Letizia, is dedicated to Modavia.
This fourth issue of 2019 is dedicated, moreover, like every year, to the Sport and Culture conference.
In this issue the permanent collaboration continues with the headline Report Defense directed by his colleague Luca Tatarelli. The themes of international relations, foreign trade, human rights and geopolitics will add important themes in international affairs such as defense and security.


Editorial - ATLANTIS

To be or survive? 

The Italian dilemma


The year 2018 ended with a political connotation of numerous twists and another is being opened in 2019, which presents itself as decided for the choices of our country.

Paraphrasing the beautiful book by Richard Haass “A World in Disarray”, it is clear that the global turmoil has involved Itala.

To the traditional problems of the last decades: the flexibility of work, the weight of the State and the tax authorities, the burden of public debt and therefore the conditions of sustainability of the debtor State, the criticality of the training system, the relations between politics and the magistracy, the inefficiency of justice, the crux of the relationship between immigration, demography, social inequality and citizenship and the lowering of the level of political personnel adds the wind of the Western political crisis that imposes precise international alliances, perhaps finally chosen and not imposed.

To say it with Tim Marshall author of “Prisoners of Geography”, (balzanamente) translated into Italian in “The 10 maps that explain the world”, from a geopolitical point of view, Italy as Germany is a “middle” power . It is not at the center of the European continental mass as the first, but the Peninsula is still the central extension of the aforementioned mass in the center of a decisive sea like the Mediterranean. Italy, therefore, has always had the problem of having to see it at the same time with its East and with its West since on both sides, among other things, its border showed a strong penetrability / porosity, although of different nature.

Hence the natural predisposition to the duplicity of our being in Europe, which, especially in the eyes of others, has mostly been presented as duplicity also underlined by Sergio Romano in his book “Guide to Italian Foreign Policy”. During the so-called First Republic, Christian Democrats and the Communist Party almost symbolically represented the geopolitical duplicity of the country. The fact is that although tied with a strict bond to the United States and totally committed by the West in the Cold War, however, Italy never ceased to try to ease the bond mentioned above (oil policy and generally towards the Middle East and the so-called Third World or the construction of automobile factories in the Soviet Union). The United States has long been engaged in a redefinition of their commitments seem to loosen the bond of obliged allies while Putin’s Russia, ready to shake with all whoever the most compromising relations in anti-American and anti-EU function. This is the geopolitical framework in which Ernesto Galli della Loggia sees a single way out for Italy after years of “politics of the two furnaces”: a strong role in the European sphere. Leaving aside the psychological intolerance towards the predominance of Germany, the right way if not obligatory, is to play an active role in Brussels and Strasbourg, perhaps rediscovering a federalist vocation that could seem utopia and that today, the European elective year, could give a strategic sense to our “new” foreign policy. 





Country Focus: Republic of Moldova

Country Focus: Republic of Moldova - ATLANTIS

Republic of Moldova: Authentic Discovery


Domenico Letizia


The Republic of Moldova becomes increasingly appreciated among those countries that arouse interest in Italy. The birth of this curiosity is due to the action of diplomacy on our peninsula and the work on the national territory of the Italian Chamber of Commerce of Moldova. In September 2004 he was signed in Chisinau between Unioncamere, represented by Avv. Pietro Baccarini, and the Chamber of Commerce of the Republic of Moldova, represented by President Gheorghe Cucu, a Memorandum of Understanding which provided for the creation of a mixed Italo-Moldovan Chamber. Following this agreement, in March 2005, the Italian-Moldovan Association for Trade was established. In April 2008 the ACIM obtained the official recognition by the Italian Government as the Italian-Moldovan Chamber of Commerce, a recognition that has sealed the profuse engagement for the promotion and development of the collaboration relationships between the two countries. In July 2010 the Italian-Moldovan Chamber of Commerce, ACIM obtained the official registration in Moldova of its representative office, which is responsible for Eleonora Pripa. Currently the President of the Italian-Moldovan Chamber of Commerce is Sergio Capatti, the vice president is Pasquale Di Gregorio and the General Secretary is Eleonora Pripa. There are numerous offices of the Moldovan Chamber of Commerce in Italy, such as Genoa, Ravenna, Treviso, Bologna, Florence, Rome, Ascoli Piceno and the important Apulian headquarters, located in Barletta.

The Republic of Moldova and Southern Italy

The particular link that exists between some entrepreneurs of the Italian south and the Republic of Moldova is due to a series of events and proposals developed between Puglia and Campania, thanks to the action of the Point of Barletta, managed by the figure of Luigi Caruso, entrepreneur and Director of Mya Service Srl, a company specialized in insurance consultancy for national and international road transport, as well as an expert in Moldova where he has carried out many commercial and diplomatic missions. To fully understand the importance of the Southern Point of the Chamber of Commerce, we recall what happened in June 2017 at the Castle of Barletta, in Puglia, where the very important event “The Republic of Moldova meets Puglia” took place, on the occasion of the opening to the public of the Point of Commerce Italo Moldava for Southern Italy. Important initiative that took place in Puglia with the presence of the Moldovan Ambassador in Italy Stela Stingaci, the Honorary Consul of the Republic of Moldova in Puglia Domenico De Candia, the Honorary Consul of the Republic of Moldova for the Marche region Abruzzo Roberto Galanti, the vice President of the Italian Chamber of Commerce Moldova Pasquale Di Gregorio and with the protagonist of the Pugliese representative Luigi Caruso. 2017 was an exceptional year for diplomatic relations between Italy and Moldova: 25 years of diplomatic relations between the two countries were celebrated, framing a report on the reports. Starting from the potential offered by the growing integration between Italian citizens and Moldova and the work of Caruso in promoting Moldova among southern entrepreneurs, the Embassy of Moldova in Italy intends to work to encourage further intensification of relations between the two countries. In a recent interview, Ambassador Stela Stingaci declared: “I think the voice of Italians in Moldova is very important. For this reason I decided to organize regular meetings with the Italian community that if on one hand will allow us to discuss any issues of general interest, I hope they can also represent an opportunity for exchange and dialogue on new initiatives to strengthen the Italian friendship. Moldovan “. The leadership and activities of Barletta’s Point were further confirmed in September 2017, at the Unioncamere Pavilion, at the Fiera del Levante, where a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Bari Chamber of Commerce and the Italo-Vltava Chamber of Commerce. , aimed at promoting business relationships between companies in the Apulian territory and those of the Republic of Moldova. The protocol was signed in the presence of the Ambassador of the Republic of Moldova in Italy Stela Stingaci, the President of the Bari Chamber of Commerce Alessandro Ambrosi and the heads of the Chamber of Commerce Italo Moldova, in the figure of Vice President Pasquale Di Gregorio and Luigi Caruso. During this work, numerous companies began to look with interest at the Republic of Moldova. A few months later, from 20 to 26 November, the leading role of the Chamber of Commerce and Barletta Point is recognized in Moldova, during the second edition of the “Italian Cuisine Week in the World - The Extraordinary Italian Taste”. Tradition, excellence and true Italian taste were celebrated in Moldova. The protagonists were the Apulian products, in particular wine and taralli, thanks to the organization of the companies promoted by Luigi Caruso. With the approach of 2019, work is underway to promote some important Apulian businesses in Moldova. The work carried out with the company “I Bilanciai”, producers of scales in Barletta, which have had a positive response with the reality of Moldova, is starting to be the subject of regional attention. Further opportunities are also in progress for a transport and logistics company, “Autotrasporti Adesso”, ready to start an economic collaboration with some important parteners of the Republic of Eastern Europe. Another example of Pugliese excellence that is developing relations in the Republic of Moldova is the entrepreneurial reality of “FUMEC”. The company has a thirty-year experience in the aluminum, wood, PVC and armored sectors and, thanks to the support of Barletta’s Point, directed by Luigi Caruso, the company will participate in a trade fair in Moldova in March 2019. An entrepreneurial network that in Puglia starts to have considerable strength. Also in Campania, the Chamber of Commerce has strengthened its relations with local businesses from Caserta and Naples, always thanks to the protagonism of Barletta’s Point. This coordination was born in July 2018, when a day of in-depth study was held on the opportunities for Italian companies and for the promotion of tourism in Moldova with the collaboration of the Barletta Point of the Italo Moldova Chamber of Commerce, the Research Institute of Economics and International Politics (Irepi) and the Catholic Law Firm, located in the province of Caserta. Occasion of the event was the presentation of the volume “Moldova: Autentica Scoperta”, with a foreword by Alessandro Signorini, Honorary Consul of the Republic of Moldova in Tuscany, and the participation of Luigi Caruso, of the Point of the Italian Chamber of Commerce of Puglia and the Lawyer Maria Giovanna Rizzi. During the day of in-depth analysis, Moldova was analyzed from a fiscal and bureaucratic point of view, focusing attention on the requests of the Campania companies interested in the country, with specific insights regarding the promotion of Moldova’s excellence in Italy and the enhancement of excellence. Italians in Moldova. Furthermore, some fairs, events and initiatives put in place by Moldova to promote Italian companies interested in the country were described and illustrated. Attention was focused on some of the main fairs in Moldova, particularly in the real estate and agribusiness sectors. The entrepreneurs of the Caserta were compared with analysts and with the heads of Barletta Point present at the event. After the work some company visits were carried out, thanks to the participation of Luigi Caruso, and the possibility of carrying out further business meetings, starting from 2019, was proposed for companies interested in promoting typical products of the territory in the Republic of Moldova; work processes linked to the tradition of the Campania region. Important is the role of the Italian Chamber of Commerce Moldova for the many events held and for the countless visits of Luigi Caruso in corporate structures of the Italian south. Thanks to the action of the last few months, the Italian south is aware of the opportunities in Moldova, appreciating the history and culture of the country on the border between Europe and Russia. On the other hand, even with the arrival of the new year, there will be numerous trade fairs and business meetings in Moldova and the attention of southern entrepreneurs to the work of the Barletta Point and the Chamber of Commerce is concrete. During 2018, Moldova proposed itself to the European and Italian market as a destination for cultural tourism, food and wine tourism, wine tourism and city breaks in the capital Chisinau. Despite being an extremely interesting country and still not visited by tourists, it has been included among the top 5 emerging tourist destinations in 2018, in the VoloGratis ranking, presented by the Kilimangiaro program on Rai3. Numerous air connections with Air Moldova, FlyOne and Wizz Air connecting Milan, Bergamo, Turin, Verona, Venice, Florence, Bologna and Rome with the capital Chişinau, a booming and booming city that offers receptive and congressional facilities with international standards .


Why the Republic of Moldova?

The Republic of Moldova in its past has developed a rich history full of dramatic events. At the beginning of the 14th century it is an integral part of the Principality of Moldova, located between the eastern Carpathian mountains and the Nistru river, bordering the north with the city of Hotin and the South with the Lower Danube and the Black Sea. Bucharest Declaration of Peace in 1812 a part of this territory, between the river Prut and the river Nistru taken over by Tsarist Russia, was named Bassarabia, using the ancient denomination for the southern part of the country and pursuing the objective for the promotion of the idea that this territory was a geographical entity separate from the Principality of Moldova. In January 1918 the independence of the Democratic Republic of Moldova was proclaimed. From 27 March 1918 it was decided to reunify with Romania. In 1940, following the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, another reunification process took place, so the Bassarabia zone was annexed to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and proclaimed the Socialist Republic of Moldova (RSSM), comprising nine regions of Bassarabia and the six districts located to the left of the river Nistru. The current territory of the Republic of Moldova is lower than that of the period of submission to the Russian authorities in 1812 as the cities Hotin of the North, Acherman and Ismail of the South were sold, in 1940 by the Soviet authorities, to Ukraine . Thanks to the reconstruction process, which began in Central and Eastern Europe, on 23 June 1990 Moldova proclaimed its independence and sovereignty on 27 August 1991. Since 2 March 1992, the Republic has become a member of the Organization of United Nations (UN) under the name of the Republic of Moldova. In addition to having signed an Association and Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA) with the EU in 2014, the Republic of Moldova has access to a significant number of markets as a member of the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States, with some exception and of the CEFTA. Investors can invest in any sector of the Moldovan business, provided that the interests of national security are respected. Investments are not subject to discrimination based on citizenship, domicile, residence, place of registration, investor status or any other reason. The only limitation concerns the purchase of agricultural land.


Free Economic Zones

For investors in the industrial sector, the Republic of Moldova offers excellent conditions in the Industrial Parks and in the Free Economic Zones with fiscal and administrative incentives, government support and free trade regimes for a market of 800 million consumers in the EU and CSI. In 2017 Moldova’s Free Zones attracted investments worth close to $ 60 million (+26.5% compared to 2016). According to information provided by the Moldovan Ministry of Economy, since the creation of the free zones (1996) the total volume of investments has been of 305.3 million dollars of which over 150 million in the last years. Of the total volume of investments in 2017, 36.4% was invested in the ZF “Balti”, 23% in the ZF “Ungheni” and 22.1% in the ZF “Expo-Business Chisinau”. As of 1 January 2017, 181 residents were registered in the seven Free Zones.


Industrial Weight and Technology

In 2017, the weight of industrial activity has grown, becoming the main type of activity that exceeds 75% of the volume of goods produced and services provided in 2017 (6 billion Moldovan lei), of which 81% of goods for export. In 2017, increases in production were recorded in the following manufacturing industries: wood processing, wood and cork products (excluding furniture), straw articles and plaiting materials of 50.2%; textile products of 31.8%; furniture production of 27.5%; paper and paper products of 21.7%; 17.2% chemicals; clothing of 15.1%; footwear of 14.8%; metal structures and products (excluding machinery and equipment) of 3.9%. The Republic of Moldova offers competitive advantages to attract foreign investments in this sector: strategic geographical position, linguistic culture, developed electronic communications infrastructure, advantageous start-up conditions, as well as a series of tax breaks, including a reduction in social contributions in the sector IT. According to statistical data, information and communication services have increased by 35% in the last 10 years, currently employing over 22,000 people, whose salary is twice the average salary in Moldova, and contributing 8% to GDP of the country. Another positive aspect is the ease of exporting services of this kind. According to data from the Ministry of Technologies, Information and Communication, the volume of exports of IT and communications services has increased by 10% over the last six years. In 2015, the national pharmaceutical production of the 10 companies authorized to produce medicines registered 12.5% ​​of the total number of medicines authorized in Moldova. One of the main producers of drugs is the company “FARMACO”, a company owned by a majority state. Beyond this, in the Republic of Moldova there are over 20 private companies in the pharmaceutical sector. However, in recent years the sector has seen the decline of all indicators: production, export and, above all, number of people employed in the production of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Over 90% of the drugs are imported, some of which remain inaccessible to most of the population. Currently, medicines are imported from over 60 countries, although Moldova has considerable potential for researchers in this sector and local raw materials needed for the development of new drugs.


Macroeconomic framework

The commercial policies promoted by the Republic of Moldova are mostly oriented towards the attraction of investments in the national economy, for innovation, the transfer of know-how and competitive products for domestic and foreign markets, to create efficient techniques and infrastructures. in order to maximize the existing economic potential. Thanks to its favorable geographical position, Moldova is a platform for international and multinational organizations and has become attractive for the development of trade between Western and Eastern markets. The Republic of Moldova is one of the few countries to have a preferential economic regime with the European Union (DCFTA) on the one hand and a free trade system with the ex-Soviet area (CSI countries) on the other. Moldovan legislation treats national as well as foreign investment in the same way, so both legislation and the legal framework is the same for investments of various origins. One of the main tasks of the government is to attract investment and create a business climate for all foreign and local investors. The law generally allows investing in any business sector and on the entire territory of the Republic of Moldova, provided that national security interests, antitrust legislation, national and international standards ratified for environmental protection are respected. , the health of citizens and public order. From the economic point of view, after stopping growth in 2015, 2017 saw a 3.8% increase in GDP compared to 2016. Growth was mainly due to the increase in household consumption, whose volume grew by 3.6%. The exchange rate remained essentially stable, while inflation grew by 0.4% on an annual basis. As for foreign relations, in 2017, exports amounted to 2425.1 million dollars, 18% more than in 2016. The imports were instead equal to 4831.4 million dollars, 20% in more than 2016. Exports destined to EU countries have increased significantly reaching a total of 1596 million US dollars, for a percentage higher than 65% of the total. As for foreign relations, in 2017, exports amounted to 2425.1 million dollars, 18% more than in 2016. The imports were instead equal to 4831.4 million dollars, 20% in more than 2016. Exports destined to EU countries have increased significantly reaching a total of 1596 million US dollars, for a percentage higher than 65% of the total. Those towards the CIS countries amounted to $ 462.9 million, again showing a significant increase compared to 2016. In general, 2017 recorded a trade deficit of $ 2406 million. With the EU the deficit was 792 million dollars compared to 641 million in 2016. A considerable increase, however, there was from 525.8 million dollars to 743 for the deficit against the CIS countries (especially in view of the energy dependence on this area). As for Italy, the 2017 data also confirmed the positioning of our country among the main partners of the Republic of Moldova; the second for the number of registered companies (1373, equal to 12% of foreign and mixed companies) and invested capital (1,721 million lei, equal to 12%); the third largest importer of Moldovan products (with a share of 236 million dollars, about 9.7% of the total); finally, the sixth largest exporter in the country, with a volume of 331 million dollars, equal to 7% of the market. 


The heritage of the Republic 

of Moldova: the Wine

The wines of Moldova, thanks to their quality and body, are among the top places in Europe for quantity produced, placing themselves in first place in terms of production in Eastern Europe. There are 4 main wine-growing areas in Moldova, where vines are grown such as: feteasca and rare neagra and are: Balti in the north, Codru central region, Cahul in the south and Nistreana, in the south-east on the border with Ukraine. Some wines produced in these regions have been awarded the gold medal in various international exhibitions. Alcohol in Moldova is the result of a thousand-year history. The first traces of vines can be placed in 2800 BC. A story then passed into the hands of the Greek and Roman merchants, generating the fortune of the Grand Duchy of Stephen III before being left to abandonment for three centuries of Ottoman domination. In 1812 Moldova became Russian following the Bucharest treaty and rediscovers alcohol. Currently, this small country of 3 million and 600 thousand inhabitants, sandwiched between Ukraine and Romania, is the twenty-second world wine producer. In Moldova there is 1.9% of the world surface of vines and more than 124.000 tons of alcohol are produced annually, of which 95% is exported. According to the World Wine Agency, the wine sector accounts for more than 20% of the country’s GDP and a third of its exports. The Balti region is considered the least valuable area because the mainly flat territory, allows the cultivation of only some quality wines, among which some types of white wine whose pomace are used for the preparation of Moldava grappa, better known as Rachiu . The central area, Codru, is the main region for the production of wines both for quality and quantity. The characteristic of the territory formed by vast hilly valleys, allow to obtain red wines of the highest quality, such as those of the cellars of Milestii Mici, Cricova and Cojusna, which produce Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Pinot Noir. As for whites worthy of mention are: the Aligotè, the Pinot Gris and Blanc, the Feteasca, the Riesling, the Sauvignon, the Chardonnay and the Traminer. In the areas of south and south east of Moldova you get a Merlot of excellent quality thanks to favorable climatic conditions and given the proximity to the Black Sea. Specifically near the border with Ukraine is positioned the Nistreana area characterized by the production of Negru, Rosu and Purpuru in the cellars of Purcari and Tudora. Above all the Negru de Purcari has a prestigious international reputation as it is, among other things, a wine regularly ordered by the British royal court, appreciated by the Queen, since the end of the nineteenth century. Its precise composition is still kept secret even if it is certain the use of grapes from the French Cabernet Sauvignon, the Georgian Saperavi and the native Rara Neagra. Legend has it that Prince Stefan cel Mare, after every battle against the Ottoman invader, used to drink a cup of wine obtained from the mixture of Negru, Rosu and Purpuru which according to the myth generated strength and courage. The Negru de Purcari is a high quality dry red moldavian wine. The prestigious Purcari estate, 129 km away from the capital Chisinau, produces this wine, which is aged for 3 years in oak barrels, in very limited lots. Currently, in Moldova, the Negru de Purcari retail price is around 270 MDL (around 13 euros). This wine has a very saturated dark ruby ​​color. We can effectively affirm that Moldova has a great oenological culture and is described as the “country with open doors in the paradise of wine”. The wine history of the village of Mileştii Mici is decidedly particular. The favorable climatic conditions, the land particularly suitable for the cultivation of the vine, the underground tunnels excavated in ancient times for the extraction of the stone and then reconverted to cellars, gave life to an impressive number of cellars and the largest one in the world, inaugurated in 1969 and recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records in 2005 as the largest for the number of bottles. Currently the “Mileştii Mici” wine factory is a public company specializing in the production, preservation and marketing of alcoholic beverages. The streets of this incredible underground city are named after some qualities of wine produced here, such as Aligoté, Cabernet and Feteasca. The oldest bottle dates back to 1969, but scrolling and viewing the walls you can see dozens of wines bottled in the ‘70s and’ 80s. The red wine is the real part, occupying a space of 70%, while the white one takes 20% and the dessert one the remaining 10%. Each bottle of wine has an identity card indicating the number, the name of the wine, the year of the grape harvest and the year of the beginning of aging. Impressive also the presence of large oak barrels from the Carpathians, with capacities ranging from 600 to 2000 decals. 




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