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ATLANTIS MAGAZINE is available for iPad! - ATLANTIS

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In this issue

In this issue - ATLANTIS

Serena Antoniazzi



Luca Baraldi



Domenico Letizia



Eleonora Lorusso



Riccardo Palmerini



Maurizio Melani



Romano Toppan



Domenico Vecchioni

Ambassador, Editorial director of the Mazzanti Libri Global Observatory Series






Appointments in the World

Appointments in the World - ATLANTIS

18-22 May 2020 

Rome (Italy)

 “The world’s population continues to grow, albeit at a slower pace than at any time since 1950, owing to reduced levels of fertility. From an estimated 7.7 billion people worldwide in 2019, the medium-variant projection indicates that the global population could grow to around 8.5 billion in 2030, 9.7 billion in 2050, and 10.9 billion in 2100.” (World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision. New York: United Nations). These demographic changes are closely interlinked with the issues of access to sufficient, affordable and nutritious food. With this consideration in mind, the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), in cooperation with John Cabot University (JCU), is organizing the second edition of the Spring Course on Food and Nutrition Security, which will take place at JCU in Rome, Italy, from 18 to 22 May 2020.


10 June 2008 

The International Labor Organization unanimously adopted the “ILO Declaration on social justice for a just globalization”. The Declaration represents the third most important statement of the principles and policies adopted by the International Labor Conference since 1919, the year the ILO was founded. The document is based on the Philadelphia Declaration of 1944 and the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights in the Work of 1998. The 2008 Declaration expresses the contemporary vision of the mandate of the ILO in the era of globalization.


22-28 June 2020

Turin (ITALY)

The fifth edition of the program developed by CDI, Politecnico di Torino and CERN has started: 53 young people at work to meet the challenges launched by Enel, Autostrade per l’Italia, CNH Industrial, DSM, Iren, Puglia Region, the Italian School of Hospitality and United Nations International Institute for Crime and Justice Research (UNICRI). On June 23, the teams will present their solutions to a jury of experts, investors and personalities from the world of technology and industry during the ‘Italian Tech Week in Turin, the Italian Technology Week to be held in Turin from 22 to 28 June 2020.


13-17 July 2020 

Rome (Italy)

International migration is a growing phenomenon involving the international community as a whole and engaging Member States in the protection of human rights. Analyzing migration as a crosscutting topic and understanding the challenges faced both by migrants and Member States is crucial for the development and implementation of national policies compliant with international human rights standards. According to the International Migrant Stock 2019, a dataset released by the Population Division of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), international migrants globally reached an estimated 272 million in 2019, an increase of 51 million since 2010.

After the closure for printing of this article, some of the appointments and events may have been delated or postponed to another date.





Cover: Galileo Galilei

Cover: Galileo Galilei - ATLANTIS

Physicist and philosopher of nature (Pisa 1564 - Arcetri 1642). After leaving the university in 1585, without obtaining any qualification, Galilei under the guidance of Ostilio Ricci, member of the Florentine Academy of Drawing, undertook the reading of Euclid and Archimedes. Soon he progressed so much in his studies that he was in turn able to give private lessons to some students in Florence and Siena. His first writings date back to this period: the fragments Theoremata circa centrum gravitatis solidorum, on the determination of the barycenters; the short treatise La Bilancetta (1586), project of a hydrostatic balance for the determination of the density of the bodies which testifies to his first interests in applied sciences; and the two lessons of Dante’s exegesis About the figure, site and greatness of Hell (1588), held at the Academy of Drawing. In 1587 he met in Rome with Cristoforo Clavio and the environment of the Roman college. In 1988 the astronomer Giovanni Antonio Magini was preferred to him over the chair of mathematics of the University of Bologna. Two years later, in 1589, he was assigned the chair of mathematics in Pisa. The current image of a practical and determined experimenter Galilei is largely due to his first biographer, V. Viviani. The latter claimed that Galilei had climbed the leaning tower of Pisa between 1589 and 1592, and “with the intervention of the other readers and philosophers and all the schoolchildren”, refuted Aristotle showing that the bodies fall at the same speed independently by their weight. In 1592 he was assigned the chair of mathematics in Padua. His lectures covered topics such as Euclid’s Elements, Sacrobosco’s Sphere Treatise, Ptolemy’s Almagest and Pseudo-Aristotelian mechanical issues. Due to financial constraints, Galilei was forced to give private lessons of engineering and military architecture to young noblemen for whom he wrote a brief instruction on military architecture and a treaty of fortification. With the same motivations he also wrote the treatise Le mecaniche (1593, 1594, 1699), dedicated to the exhibition of simple machines. Alongside this didactic activity, he kept a small technical workshop, run by the mechanic Marcantonio Mazzoleni, where geometric and military compasses, compasses, squares and other mechanical instruments, later telescopes, were produced and sold. Among these technical inventions, the geometric-military compass intended for ballistic and geodetic calculations, dates back to 1597. The sales of the compass were successful and in 1606 Galilei wrote a manual in Italian: The operations of the geometric and military compass.

The telescope and the first condemnation of the Copernican theses (1609-1610)

Around July 1609 Galilei was informed of the invention of a device to make distant objects appear closer and immediately afterwards he created a telescope capable of enlarging the objects up to nine times, then giving a demonstration from the bell tower of San Marco. The tool favorably struck the authorities, who confirmed Galilei an annuity and increased his salary from 520 to 1000 guilders, an unprecedented sum for a mathematics professor. In the summer of 1611, Galilei argued with Peripatetic philosophers about the causes of floating bodies. He believed, in agreement with Archimedes, that the cause of the flotation was due to the relative density between the bodies and the liquid in which they were immersed, while his Aristotelian opponents argued, on the contrary, that this was given by the shape of the bodies. In May 1612, Galilei published the Discourse on the things that stand up or move in water. The essay was sold so quickly that a second edition was prepared before the end of the year. In the autumn of 1611 C. Scheiner, a Jesuit who taught at the University of Ingolstadt, wrote to Mark Welser in Augsburg informing him that he had discovered spots on the surface of the Sun. Galilei contested Scheiner’s interpretation that these spots were small satellites orbiting the sun. In 1612 Prince Cesi published Galilei’s interpretation (Istoria and demonstration about sunspots and their accidents), who claimed to have observed sunspots before Scheiner. This generated a dispute between Galilei and the Jesuits over the priority of the discovery. In December 1613, in Pisa, during a lunch at the court of the grand duke, Galilei absent, theological objections were raised against the Copernican system. Castelli defended Galilei’s point of view when Cristina of Lorraine, Cosimo II’s mother, asked for his opinion. Galilei then wrote a long letter to Castelli, dated December 21, 1613, in which he defended the heliocentric system. On the fourth Sunday of Advent in 1614 a Dominican friar, T. Caccini, railed against the Copernican system from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella. Another Dominican, N. Lorini, denounced Galilei by sending a copy of the letter to Castelli to the Inquisition in Rome. At this point Galilei expanded the letter (known as the Letter to Christine of Lorraine, Dec. 1615), which contains his more detailed pronouncement on the relationship between science and Sacred Scripture. Making his own the bon mot of Cardinal C. Baronio, “the intention of the Holy Spirit to teach us how to go to heaven, and not how to go to heaven”, Galilei developed the idea that God speaks both through the “book of Nature “and through the” book of Scripture “. In the first months of 1615, P. A. Foscarini published a Letter on the opinion of Pittagorici and Copernicus of the mobility of the earth and stability of the sun and sent a copy to Cardinal Bellarmino. The cardinal replied that in the absence of certain evidence on the motion of the Earth, Foscarini and Galilei should have been content to speak hypothetically. The cardinal added that in the event that a test of the terrestrial motion became available then it was necessary to reinterpret the Holy Scripture with extreme caution. Galilei, who received a copy of this letter, was convinced that he had this proof consisting of his hypothesis on the origin of the tides, which later became the topic of the fourth day of the Dialogue over the two maximum systems. Galilei presented his hypothesis in Rome at the beginning of 1616. The result was a meticulous examination of the heliocentric theory by the Holy Office and the condemnation of the following two propositions: 1. “Sol est centrum mundi, et omnino immobilis motu locale”, and 2. “Terra non est centrum mundi nec immobilis, sed secundum se totam se movetur, etiam motu diurno”. The first proposition was censured as “stultam et absurdam in philosophia, et formaliter haereticam”, and the second as “ad minus esse in Fide erroneam”. In the same year the Congregation of the Index in turn prohibited the book of Copernicus “donec corrigatur” and condemned the Letter of Foscarini. Cardinal Bellarmino gave Galilei a document stating that he had never been asked for any abjuration or retraction, but that he had simply been informed of the decision of the Congregation of the Index. An unsigned memorandum, found in the documents, went further by stating that Galilei had to be told not only to renounce the idea that the Earth is moving but also not to make it an object of discussion (“seu de ea tractare”). The authenticity of this document has been questioned, but the fact is that it emerged during the 1633 trial and was used against Galileo.

The “Discourse on Comets”, the “Assayer”, the “Dialogue” and the trial (1618-1633)

Galilei, returned to Florence, devoted himself to the problem of determining longitude at sea. The Pisan scientist hoped that accurate tables of the periods of revolution of Jupiter’s satellites would allow the sailors to establish their position simply by observing the satellites with the telescope, but the tables were not precise enough to make this method usable. In the autumn of 1618, the appearance, in rapid succession, of three comets greatly affected public opinion. Galilei thought that comets were a purely optical phenomenon caused by the refraction of light in the atmosphere and wrote a Discourse on comets in which he criticized the ideas of O. Grassi, professor of mathematics at the Roman College. According to Grassi, comets were celestial bodies that traveled beyond the sphere of the moon. Grassi’s reply, Libra astronomica ac philosophica (1619), prompted Galilei to write the Assayer (1623), in which he developed the corpuscular conception of matter. The new Pope Urban VIII, to whom the work was dedicated, welcomed Galilei to Rome in June 1624 six times. Galilei returned to Florence with the feeling that he could now freely express his ideas about the motion of the Earth. In January 1630 he completed the long-awaited Dialogue on the two highest systems. The work is divided into four days. On the first day, the Aristotelian division of the universe into two clearly distinct spheres, the terrestrial and the celestial, is criticized, both refuting the traditional distinction between rectilinear and circular motion, and showing the similarities between the Earth and the Moon. On the second day Galilei maintains that the motion of the Earth is imperceptible to its inhabitants and that the rotation of the Earth around its axis appears to be simpler than the daily rotation of the celestial sphere postulated by Ptolemy. On the third day Galilei states that the annual revolution of the Earth around the Sun in turn offers a simpler interpretation of the apparent positions of quiet and the retrograde motions of the planets. On the fourth day Galilei ingeniously but erroneously declares that the tides prove the motion of the Earth. The Dialogue also contains the correct formulation of the law of falling bodies and a discussion on the principles of relativity and the persistence of circular motion. In the spring of 1630 Galilei handed over the Dialogue to N. Riccardi, master of the Sacred Palace. From this moment some facts intervened that helped to put Galilei in a bad light in the eyes of the pope and to create again a climate of suspicion towards him. The astrologer O. Morandi, with whom Galilei had made friends, was arrested for having announced the imminent death of the pope. Harmful to Galilei was also his familiarity with Galilei Ciampoli who had cultivated friendships and acquaintances dangerously close to the Spanish cardinal Gaspare Borgia, spokesman for Philip IV and thorn in the side of Urban VIII. On March 8, 1632, after a rather stormy consistory, Urban VIII decided to purge his retinue from the elements favorable to Spain and therefore banished Ciampoli from Rome. Ciampoli’s fall had serious consequences for Galileo. Between 1630 and 1631, Ciampoli had played a decisive role in obtaining permission to publish the Dialogue. Riccardi had guaranteed the imprimatur but insisted that the preface and the conclusion be sent to him. When the Florence censor gave his consent for publication in September 1630, Riccardi began to raise difficulties stating that Galilei had pledged to return to Rome to discuss the final version of the manuscript. In the meantime, a plague epidemic had made travel between Florence and Rome difficult. At this point Riccardi proposed that a copy of the work be sent to Rome for review by Ciampoli and himself. This request too was later rejected; from that moment onwards Riccardi heard nothing of Galilei’s work until a copy of the already published book arrived in Rome. To his amazement, examining the Florentine imprimatur he discovered that he appeared to have approved it himself. Convened to account for his conduct, Riccardi justified himself by saying that he had received from Ciampoli the directive to authorize publication. The Dialogue went to press in June 1631 and was ready only in February 1632.

Copies of the book reached Rome between the end of March and the beginning of April, thus breaking into the Roman scene only a few weeks after the consistory during which Cardinal Borgia had attacked Urban VIII. Any “ciampolata”, as Urban VIII called it, from then on would have been controlled very severely. In the summer of 1632, Urban VIII ordered to investigate the authorization of the Dialogue. In the file of the Holy Office relating to Galilei the commission found an unsigned memorandum of 1616 in which he was told not to support, teach or defend in any way the idea that the Earth is moving. The commissioners, considering the injunction valid, came to the conclusion that Galilei had transgressed a formal order from the Holy Office. In light of this discovery Galilei was summoned to Rome where he arrived, very late, on February 13, 1633. Despite his decisive denial, Galilei was found guilty by the Holy Office of having transgressed the orders of the Church. On the morning of June 22, 1633, he was taken to a room in the convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome and was made to kneel while reading the sentence that sentenced him to imprisonment. While still kneeling, Galilei formally retracted his mistake. The sentence included a formal prison in Rome, then commuted to a forced residence in the archiepiscopal palace in Siena, where Galilei spent a few months affectionately hosted by Cardinal A. Piccolomini. Only in December 1633 was he able to return to Arcetri, where he spent the last years of his life in a state of supervised residence. He went blind in 1638. (Treccani)

Focus: Surefish: il progetto "Prima" per la tutela e valorizzazione del Mediterr

Focus: Surefish: il progetto "Prima" per la tutela e valorizzazione del Mediterr - ATLANTIS

 Surefish: the Prima project for the protection and enhancement of the Mediterranean

The Mediterranean is changing and many native species of the basin risk disappearing forever, compromising millennia of history, culture and traditions related to fishing and fishing peoples. Cooperation between the Mediterranean countries appears to be the only way to safeguard fish stocks, generate sustainable employment and reflect the very important points of the United Nations Agenda 20-30. Thanks to the PRIMA program, an initiative supported and financed under the Horizon 2020 projects, some Mediterranean countries are working on the development of a European research and innovation plan to tackle the phenomenon of fishing in the basin. “Surefish” is the winning project of the PRIMA 2019 Calls for the “agrifood value chain” sector, food chain, with a financing of 1 million and 600 thousand euros. The project sees the coordination of Italy with the company ENCO SRL, which has been specializing for years in guiding EU-funded research projects, and beyond. The excellent project manager is, in fact, thanks to a highly qualified staff, such as Eng. Giampiero de la Feld, senior Project Manager Marco de la Feld and junior Project Manager Simona Mincione. The company, in its role as coordinator, is flanked by the University of Naples Federico II, in which they also participate, “Slow Food Tebourba Association”, with Marzouk Mejri, together with “Gi. & Me. Association, chaired by engineer Franz Martinelli who, together with other research bodies and universities from Italy, Spain, Tunisia, Egypt and Lebanon are supporting the enhancement of the fish heritage in the Mediterranean, the monitoring and analysis of traceability, sustainability and the authenticity of the catch of our common sea. At the center of the design idea is the enhancement and protection of fishing, in particular for anchovy, grouper, tilapia and bluefin tuna, with the aim of ensuring the traceability of the fish product and to combat illegal fishing.

The priority design vision is to safeguard Mediterranean fishing through the implementation of innovative solutions to obtain a certification of sustainability and territoriality of indigenous fish and confirm the importance of such approaches, thus preventing fish fraud.

The project, curated by the many protagonists of the various shores of the Mediterranean, also intends to promote innovation in the supply mechanisms and consumer confidence in the catch of the Mediterranean. Enhance the quality and safety of a product of which the whole vineyard phase is known, from the origin to the final processing. Fishing is in fact one of the largest industries in the Mediterranean area, it provides significant income and commercial opportunities in many countries of the coast, but it is often inefficient and expensive, because it is not regulated. Illegal fishing is unfortunately a widespread practice, including overfishing and fraud. For this reason, the sector must face a sharp drop in consumer confidence also with companies that practice environmental and social responsibility. Ideas well summarized by the professor of food science and technology of the University of Naples Federico II, Rossella Di Monaco: “The main objective is to enhance Mediterranean fishing through the implementation of innovative solutions to obtain fish traceability autochthonous and confirm its authenticity, thus preventing fraud. Our project also intends to promote innovation in supply chains and consumer confidence in fish caught in the Mediterranean ”.

Italy is the second largest fishing producer in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, with volumes of not less than 300 thousand tons and a value of more than 700 million euros. The Mediterranean Sea is currently in the worst state of all European seas, with about 90% of over-exploited fish stocks and some at high risk of complete collapse. European hake, red mullet, bluefin tuna and monkfish are all caught at much higher levels than are considered sustainable, according to the parameters and studies of the European Commission.


The methods of implementation 

of the project and the protection 

of the fish fauna.

The planning linked to Surefish intends to develop and implement a global solution that enhances safety, traceability and authenticity for the complete supply chain of fishing in the Mediterranean. This solution is validated on pilot cases located in four Mediterranean countries, each centered on a representative and particularly important Mediterranean fish: anchovy, grouper, tilapia and bluefin tuna. The Surefish consortium, made up of 13 partners from both sides of the Mediterranean Sea, is starting a network with the use of technologies and skills on ICT, blockchain, labeling and intelligent packaging, using innovative analytical and sensorial methods for the traceability and evaluation of the fishing. At the same time, the project intends to develop communication and information strategies to promote consumer confidence, with dedicated certification marks and APPs, to protect endangered species in the Mediterranean and to share research data with all the protagonists of the network.


The importance of bluefin tuna 

for the Mediterranean.

Among the endangered species to be protected and enhanced is bluefin tuna, a symbol of the Mediterranean Sea. This important animal is counted among the largest and most valuable fish from an economic point of view. Because of its economic value, bluefin tuna has been heavily the victim of illegal fishing practiced mainly in its breeding areas and in general throughout the Mediterranean. Suffice it to say that among the WWF’s international disputes with the European authorities, a central place has been taken by the bluefin tuna and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunnids has decided not to increase the fishing quotas of bluefin tuna at levels unsustainable. Bluefin tuna is the most widespread species in the Mediterranean and world production has touched 40,000 tons and of this more than half is represented by catches made in the Atlantic, more than doubled in the last thirty-five years and especially since the 1990s. Analyzing the production data of Atlantic bluefin tuna by fishing area, it emerges that, in recent decades, the quantities caught in the Mediterranean have acquired increasing importance. This increase has had a major impact on the great development of farms, especially following the sharp increase in Japanese demand, fueled by the spread of sushi-sashimi, raw fish consumed in bars and restaurants. In this regard, it has been estimated that, from 1997-2002, Japan’s imports from the Mediterranean have gone from zero to 70% of the total. This percentage grew further in the following years, so much so that, already in 2005, almost all the bluefin tuna marketed by this country came from fattening plants in the Mare nostrum. Until the 1950s, bluefin tuna, still easily available, was primarily intended for the canning and processing industry. In the following decades the fashion of sushi and sashimi raised the demand and value of these specimens, which between the eighties and nineties became expensive. Prices vary according to the type of marketing of the tuna, which can be fresh or defrosted, but also according to the color of the meat and the fat content. At the Japanese fish market in Tsukiji, the best tuna are sold every year at significant numbers, so much so that in January 2013 a 222 kg bluefin tuna was bought at a price of 13 million euros. The objective of the Surefish project is to protect, enhance and certify this fish species which is increasingly in danger of disappearing.


Climate change affects 

the Mediterranean and fish fauna.

The defined phenomenon of tropicalization of the Mediterranean, linked to global warming, has been known for some time: the first alarm in the Mediterranean was triggered over 30 years ago. Today, there are over 1000 alien species in the Mediterranean, many of which are fish. Of these, only about twenty have already arrived in Italian waters, while most are around the eastern Mediterranean, off the Turkish and Lebanese coasts, where they represent more than 50% of the fishing catch, but according to the sightings it can be said that these species are moving and expanding towards the central Mediterranean. Blue crab, flute fish, Japanese shrimp, rabbit fish, lion fish, are common names for fishing in warm seas and yet more and more often they appear in the nets of Mediterranean fishermen and on the counters of fishmongers, also arriving on our tables, by whom wants to taste new types of fish. The autochthonous fish of the Mediterranean are a real mine of work and opportunities, which risks becoming sterile. European and Mediterranean policies not linked to a single vision, to a fisheries diplomacy, are preventing actions aimed at saving and restoring global fish stocks and their associated uses, leading the oceanic fish industries to produce 50 billion dollars less per year than their potential. Starting from these data, we arrive at the observation that life in the oceans has significantly contracted over the years. This is demonstrated by a study conducted by the WWF and the London zoology experts. The research examined over a thousand species and analyzed five thousand populations of marine creatures, including fish, turtles and marine mammals. Since the seventies of the twentieth century, global marine fauna has shrunk by half, in particular, tuna and mackerel have lost nearly three quarters of their respective populations.

Overfishing is not the only cause of the unnecessary fish slaughter. The immense quantity of micro plastics, with the ingestion of marine creatures in the digestive system, the loss of the marine habitat and climate change are among the problems of the Mediterranean. The implementation of the Surefish project will encourage the promotion of fish consumption and the improvement of food safety throughout the supply chain with a consequent improvement in quality, sustainability and competitiveness, with particular reference to small businesses. The idea is to launch cooperation on fishing and the protection of the sea, questioning the main protagonists facing the Mediterranean and paying attention to eco-sustainable activities linked to the enhancement of the blue-economy. 



Deseases in the World: The Covid-19

Deseases in the World: The Covid-19 - ATLANTIS

The Covid-19

1. What is a Coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses known to cause diseases ranging from the common cold to more serious diseases such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).

They are positive-stranded RNA viruses, with a crown-like appearance under an electron microscope. The subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the Coronaviridae family is classified into four genera of coronavirus (CoV): Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-- and Gammacoronavirus. The betacoronavirus genus is further separated into five subgenres (including Sarbecovirus).

Coronaviruses were identified in the mid-1960s and are known to infect humans and certain animals (including birds and mammals). The primary target cells are the epithelial cells of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

To date, seven Coronaviruses have proven to be able to infect humans:

Common human coronaviruses: HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 (Betacoronavirus) and HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63 (Alphacoronavirus); they can cause common colds but also serious lower respiratory tract infections

other human Coronaviruses (Betacoronavirus): SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and 2019-nCoV (now called SARS-CoV-2).


2. What is a new Coronavirus?

A new Coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain of coronavirus that has never previously been identified in humans. In particular, the one called SARS-CoV-2 (previously 2019-nCoV), has never been identified before being reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.


3. What is SARS-Cov-2?

The virus causing the current coronavirus epidemic has been called “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2). This was announced by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) which deals with the designation and naming of viruses (i.e. species, genus, family, etc.). The name is indicated by a group of experts specifically appointed to study the new coronavirus strain. According to this pool of scientists, the new coronavirus is the brother of what caused Sars (SARS-CoVs), hence the chosen name of SARS-CoV-2.


4. What is COVID-19?

The disease caused by the new Coronavirus has a name: “COVID-19” (where “CO” stands for corona, “VI” for virus, “D” for disease and “19” indicates the year in which it occurred). The WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus announced it on February 11, 2020, during a briefing with the press during a break in the extraordinary forum dedicated to the virus.


5. Is the new Coronavirus 

the same as SARS?

No. the new Coronavirus (now referred to as SARS-CoV-2 and formerly named 2019-nCoV) belongs to the same family of acute severe respiratory syndrome (SARS) viruses but is not the same virus.

The new Coronavirus, responsible for respiratory disease now called COVID-19, is closely related to SARS-CoV and is genetically classified within the Betacoronavirus Sarbecovirus subgenus.


6. Why did the new coronavirus 

appear? (SOURCE: ISS)

The appearance of new pathogenic viruses for humans, previously circulating only in the animal world, is a widely known phenomenon (called spill over) and it is thought that it may also be at the basis of the origin of the new coronavirus (SARS- CoV-2). The scientific community is currently trying to identify the source of the infection.


7. Where can I find more information on the new Coronavirus?

The Ministry of Health has created a dedicated website: www.salute.gov.it/nuovocoronavirus.

Actuality: Sport, Art, Business and Tourism aces poker for Cortina 2026

Actuality: Sport, Art, Business and Tourism aces poker for Cortina 2026 - ATLANTIS

Sport, Art, Business and Tourism aces poker for Cortina 2026

The third. edition of the “Sport & Culture” appointment organized by the section of the national veteran sports union Ercole Olgeni, and the international business magazine Atlantis has launched a concrete and precise message linked to the appointment of the Milan and Cortina 2026 Winter Olympics. Experts of the respective sectors present at the 2020 focus focused on “Sport, art, business and tourism” held in the prestigious Ca ‘della Nave di Martellago Golf Club, followed in panels of about half an hour. In succession: Saverio Simi de Burgis, professor of ‘Academy of Fine Arts of Venice, Alessandro Martini (director of the Treviso Turismo Foundation), the entrepreneur Andrea Mazzanti (Venetian publishing house Mazzanti Libri), Rinaldo Boggiani (Delegate for Culture of Venice Confindustria, metropolitan area Venice and Rovigo) declined the priorities for a real team game in perspective “Five Winter Circles”. The day ended with due remembrance for the Memorial Day, and with the delivery of the “Ercole Olgeni” prize, the vase of a master glassmaker made for the occasion, to the team manager and founder of Black Lions Venezia (hockey in wheelchair) three times champion of Italy Sauro Corò All that surrounds the sporting event must be filled with contents and values ​​- it is the synthesis of the works - fielding all the excellences of the territory starting with cultural and artistic heritage but also if not above all from the art produced. Naturally accompanied by a tourist sector that knows how to adapt the offer to the various types of guests that we will have in the region both before, during and also after the Olympic event. In this regard, the project already approved by the board of the Academy of Fine Arts of Venice and presented by the magazine Atlantis was mentioned. The aim of the project is to bring together worlds and sectors, even apparently different, such as art, of business and sport, through their collaboration aimed at creating works of art, inspired by the sport practiced by weak and needy categories of social protection and in the affirmation and recognition of their rights (including sports) and sport in as a discipline that recognizes the fundamental respect for human rights. The project, in its concrete development, consists in the creation by the students of the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice, of a sketch that will have a different theme every year: In 2026 (Olympic year) there will be an exhibition of artistic projects and products made by the companies that have joined the project. The project has a non-transitory but permanent effect. The collaboration between subjects thinking about art and subjects that make the artistic product. The project, therefore, aims to bring artistic design (Academy) closer to industrial realization (Companies). At the end of the five-year period dedicated to the sports subject, the collaboration may have permanent effects to redevelop an offer that needs to raise its level of positioning on the international market. The Olympic showcase, however, will constitute a respectable world stage. The players on the pitch will be a guarantee for the success of the initiative. 


Actuality: Freedom of work and freedom from wor

Actuality:  Freedom of work and freedom from wor - ATLANTIS

 Freedom of work and freedom from work, the apparent opposition between automation and person


Anthropology, work and society

In the inaugural lecture given at the Collège de France on January 5, 1960, Claude Lévi-Strauss said:

“If, God forbid, the anthropologist who presages the future of humanity is requested, he certainly would not conceive it as an extension or an overcoming of the current forms, but, rather, on the model of an integration that progressively unifies the typical characters of cold societies and hot societies. His reflection is linked to the old Cartesian dream of putting machines, like automata, at the service of men; it would follow in the 18th century social philosophy, and up to Saint-Simon; in fact, announcing the passage “from the government of men to the administration of things”, he anticipated both the anthropological distinction between culture and society, and that conversion of which the advances in information theory and electronics make us, at least, glimpse the possibility: from a type of civilization, that is, which once inaugurated historical becoming, but at the price of a transformation of men into machines, to an ideal civilization, which would be able to transform machines into men. Then, since culture had fully taken on the task of making progress, society would be freed from a millennial curse, which forces it to enslave men for progress to take place “.

And added a reflection that leaves us amazed and dumbfounded:

“History would make itself, and could, once again, take on that regular and almost crystalline structure, of which the best preserved primitive societies teach us that it is not contradictory with humanity ... if in hidden regions of the Earth, some men had not stubbornly resisted history and had not remained as a living proof of what we want to save. “


Cybernetic tribes 

and the network society

It is the right of everyone to make anthropological (and even self-critical) reflections on what is happening around us, in society as in the “cybernetic tribes of the network society”, to adequately interpret both their own behavior and the scenario that opens with advent of automation, robotics and computers.

The man-machine, man-robot, man-computer relationship is and remains, also on an anthropological level, a cost-benefit relationship, with all the attention that this term has not only in the financial statements of companies, but also in the financial statements “Social and environmental”: therefore with respect to the very limited nature that this equation has in the “management” approach, anthropology introduces a broadening of the horizon, including many more variables.

This equation is simple, understandable to everyone and, in particular, a yardstick of every business activity and the foundation of our reflection today, but its break-even point does not coincide with that of a CEO’s financial report.

In the report drawn up, already in 1955, at the beginning of the problem we are dealing with, by the Society for Applied Anthropology of the University of Yale, it is said that “The opinions of the experts are divided on automation. The conference could not agree on the effects that the new appliances will have on employment ... and if they could cause large-scale unemployment. Others have argued that the work in the office and in the factory will become obtuse, if all that is required is to observe a panel equipped with visual and / or acoustic signals... At the end of the conference the representatives of the workers and entrepreneurs were agree on the point that automation will represent, in the long run, a blessing for humanity. But they were concerned about the disturbances that the elimination of jobs could cause in the economy


Robotics and Los Angeles dockers

The recent protests of the Los Angeles dockers who declare war on Maersk robots in the management of containers in ports around the world is an indication of a war against automation and is just one of many symptoms.

But despite this, the road is irreversible: it is a question of distinguishing employment from employability, profoundly changing the vision of current work to prefigure a more original and, if possible, even more extravagant study of how to radically change job creation infinite spaces without limits: it depends on the strategies adopted, especially in terms of politics and according to the (sustainable) development criteria that are adopted.

If on a political level, for collusive reasons, income positions are favored which absorb enormous quantities of wealth “without” a real job (for example in Italy the so-called “relational” capitalism), an “impoverishment” is immediately determined in the “system” immediate and lethal of profitable opportunities for concrete and true jobs that generate productivity and competitiveness. And a halo effect is added immediately, for which an escape from “real” jobs is created but without congruent earnings prospects and marked by poor social “prestige”: a sensational example is the galactic compensation of players who, moving in a regime of economics of the “futile” and even of the useless, barely one hundred times less compensation would be justified. The same is true, in the context of the economy of “emotions”, for singers, bloggers or influencers or other similar figures of the current panorama of cultural decay and evanescence or dementia who obtain an exaggerated and vexatious tribute from their “subjects” (psychological ) said followers, with a raking of real money that creates chronic “drought” for all other possible productive and real jobs of which the land, society, communities, nature, common goods, waters, cities, suburbs etc. they would need urgently.



Employment and employability

Therefore, if in over sixty years the issue has not made progress regarding the “employment” debate and job creation or loss, the reason is to pose a false problem: the real problem is not the creation or fewer jobs, but the distribution processes of the greater wealth produced. If productivity and profitability grow thanks to the adoption of digitalization, but then, as happened between 2017 and 2018, 80 percent of the greater wealth produced goes into the pocket of 10 percent of the Italian population, then the truth this is the knot to untie and not the employment dilemma.

In fact, I confirm that “employability” as a function is practically infinite: only for Italian cultural assets, which are an immense and undervalued heritage, “employability”, in a coherent and commendable strategic decision, is very high, as in all labor intensive economies, such as tourism, art, culture, maintenance of the building heritage, the green economy, health services, crafts (urban, rural and artistic) and all economic sectors that require their reproducibility and usability through the direct action of the person (with the necessary skills): the debate on “employability” is badly placed, if we refer to policies that accentuate or emphasize the labor saving or capital-intensive sectors, as they love prefer the sectors related to the few tycoons of cementing, large works, preferably useless and / or made with corruption. It is known to everyone that these “great works” in our country have a cost equal to four times those same works carried out in more virtuous countries, better governed and less permeable to corruption.

In tourism, for example, an investment of 1 billion euros generates over 12,000 jobs, while the same billion invested in the TAV infrastructure or in the extraction of oil generates about 300. Digitization and the 4.0 economy also amplify employability , insofar as it does not become an end in itself as a monopolistic concentration, but spreads like a large rhizome that penetrates, radiates and feeds concrete and tangible economies, amplifying intangible assets in them and giving within their “products” a plus of intelligence, knowledge, emotion, enjoyable and accessible fruition.

Work, understood as the application of means to an end, is the answer to man’s relationship with himself and the environment and is a phenomenon that far exceeds the amount of existing “jobs”. The work is, in a sense, infinite and exponential.

Just think of the situation in which the natural and built environment is facing (for example the architectural heritage, historic centers etc.).

Doesn’t this also belong to the subject of the work?

What is missing is the flexibility of cultural models and institutions to respond to these new needs, to these new spaces of employment.

The archetype of the permanent position, or even of the annuity place, as it has basically become the public workplace, creates incalculable damage, because it tends to freeze a huge amount of human resources and skills, sinking them into an attitude that absorbs from the system more wealth than it produces, especially when public employment generates delays, wastes, obstacles and wide absenteeism, which in some bodies reaches almost one hundred percent (and the “useless” entities in our country are still very numerous today and tolerated).

Institutions, in their chronic backwardness of functioning with respect to social evolution, contribute greatly to distracting resources, freezing the huge amount of “fake” jobs to the detriment of new, infinite “real” jobs.

If, absurdly, the institutions were so flexible as to automatically adapt to the needs of “real” work, the cost of creating a job would tend to become a zero cost.


Internet & cabernet?

Although so early compared to current times, Lévi-Strauss’s reflections represent a model of behavior still valid today: a multidisciplinary vision, in balance between criticism attentive to the myth of modernity (which does not amount tout court to a better quality of man ) and the anthropological hypothesis of reconciling the characteristics of cold societies with the characteristics of hot societies, that synthesis that we could define, with a play on words, that knows how to find equally vital for the quality of life both internet and cabernet, that is the most advanced technologies and the simplest technologies related to nature, fields, mother earth.

The ambivalence of the problem is still present today from every point of view in which we look at it and compared to 50 years ago, at the time of the report of the Society of Applied Anthropology, we have not made much progress to get out of this oscillation between private and public vices virtue of automation, between the merits or benefits it induces and the problems, anxieties and dark sides that it arouses.

Let us therefore stick to a pure “phenomenology”: what happens within some important structures of the culture of social and human relationships in relation to himself?

And what happens in the cosmos of the structure (of power, of languages, of communicative relationships) of companies and organizations?

The first observation that comes to mind to underline is that automation, robotics and the computer are not a traumatic or unexpected event for those who see the history of man with the tiny “s”, the history, with the look with which Braudel and his disciples see it.

Internet & cabernet?

Although so early compared to current times, Lévi-Strauss’s reflections represent a model of behavior still valid today: a multidisciplinary vision, in balance between criticism attentive to the myth of modernity (which does not amount tout court to a better quality of man ) and the anthropological hypothesis of reconciling the characteristics of cold societies with the characteristics of hot societies, that synthesis that we could define, with a play on words, that knows how to find equally vital for the quality of life both internet and cabernet, that is the most advanced technologies and the simplest technologies related to nature, fields, mother earth.

The ambivalence of the problem is still present today from every point of view in which we look at it and compared to 50 years ago, at the time of the report of the Society of Applied Anthropology, we have not made much progress to get out of this oscillation between private and public vices virtue of automation, between the merits or benefits it induces and the problems, anxieties and dark sides that it arouses.

Let us therefore stick to a pure “phenomenology”: what happens within some important structures of the culture of social and human relationships in relation to himself?

And what happens in the cosmos of the structure (of power, of languages, of communicative relationships) of companies and organizations?

The first observation that comes to mind to underline is that automation, robotics and the computer are not a traumatic or unexpected event for those who see the history of man with the tiny “s”, the history, with the look with which Braudel and his disciples see it.

Automation and culture

Automation and robotics are partial “cultural” expressions and fully belong to the heritage of those solutions to human problems, which are accumulating at least from the Paleolithic to the present day.

Ultimately they belong to the “culture of the result”, which, in all the reflections of this genre, I like to contrast dialectically, albeit without preconceived controversy, to the “culture of words”.

Belonging to automation and robotics is clearly oriented towards the specific area of ​​the “response” rather than the pure question of the human condition, in the continuum of freedom / necessity: they therefore place themselves on the side of those concrete, solid, irreducible events that they extend freedom and reduce the need, within the quadrant that documents every way of being a man in history.

In this sense, it is worthwhile that we fully understand this fact, helping us with the words with which Diderot opened the Encyclopédie and, with it, the age of the Enlightenment and the modern, secular, empirical era.

“Bacon considers the history of the mechanical arts as the most important branch of true philosophy and Colbert considered the industriousness of peoples and the creation of factories as the safest wealth of a kingdom ...” Put the real advantages of the most sublime sciences and the most honored arts on one scale, and the advantages of the mechanical arts on the other plate, and you will find that the traditional estimate made of both has not been distributed according to the fair relationship of these advantages, and that men intent on making us believe that we are happy than those intent on making sure that we really were ”.

Raised to this level, automation and robotics, as well as the computer itself, certainly appear to be more the answer to a human aspiration and an operational trend than a regressive threat to the overall condition of man and the culture that feeds him.

The anthropological problem of machinism does not arise as a function of the machine in the production of objects, which leaves us neutral, except judging its greater or lesser compliance with real or symbolic needs, but it depends on the influence it has on human life and on transformations that this evolution entails.


From Aristotle to cybernetics

The first philosopher-anthropologist who posed the problem of automation and robotics was Aristotle, who in his book of Politics affirms that slavery is necessary, in spite of ourselves, but would cease to be so if the cops and plectrums could put themselves on their own .

The jubilant songs that Antifilo of Byzantium uttered are more than eloquent in this respect:

“Take your hands off or millers from the grindstone, sleep for a long time, even if the crowing of the cock announces the day, since Demeter commissioned the nymphs to do the work that your hands did”.

And he closes with the usual myth that we all know very well: “We will taste the golden age”.

Unfortunately, to see the concrete effects the nymphs had to wait many centuries.

Not to mention the disturbing technical immobility that characterized the whole period that goes from the Greeks to the early Middle Ages, despite the depth that “speculative” culture had, that which refers to “logos”, to the word, to the concepts.

In this respect, automation and robotics mark a point in favor of the decisive evolution of the culture of the concrete, of the result. And to justify the value I attach to this fact, just think that only two centuries of operational approach of this culture are few compared to the other’s 15 centuries of dominance. Even in the study of history, very little importance is given to the evolution of techniques. In fact, we know all about Otto di Brunswig, Matilde di Canossa, Gregorio VII and nothing about the technique discovered and applied in that same historical period to the pectoral harness of the horse, which has multiplied its driving force.

In the Middle Ages, in an era of frightening pauperism, the chest harness produced a significant effect not only on the value of the capital “horse” (which lasted much longer, while before the discovery he was forced to tow with his neck, with a choking effect due to the excessive weight of the chariots), but on the very content of rural life, on trade, ultimately on man more than the 3 Brass produced with their crown of the Holy Roman Empire, whose usefulness for those he worked was certainly less than the harness.

In conclusion: the ambiguity of robotics is due to the dilemma between liberation “of” work and liberation “from” work.


Culture of the result 

and culture of communication

But there is another culture that derives a more than proportional real incentive from automation, robotics and computers and will draw even more in the future: the culture of communication and widespread participation.

By participation, anthropology does not mean a pure political fact, based on which, while before on a problem they discussed and decided in only three in an entire nation and now instead they discuss a hundred or a thousand (and sometimes no one decides anymore).

Anthropology rather means participation as a “chance” to be simultaneously a producer of objects and a producer of oneself and of intangible and transmissible meanings. Also as a way of being here and now and also elsewhere in time and / or space.

Automation, robotics and computers determine the conditions under which what happened in the Far West to the bison no longer happens to man: killed only to bring home his horns, as Marx explains in defining the concept of alienation.

In other words, in the phenomenology of human work, a thousand possibilities are introduced that give man’s condition a fungible and widespread access to goods, services and ways of being that he did not have before and, above all, to no longer define his overall existence, including his most essential faculties, as a function of a way of producing that realized only a fraction of his potential.

Nothing more than all this new way of producing is causing the shift of attention from performance evaluation to the evaluation of human potential, even in corporate culture.

Being surrounded by this new explosion of access gives a qualitatively different effect to the human condition of the previous phase: from play to travel (reservations), to education, to documentation, to the development of added value, to the decentralization of knowledge and power.

And also to the decentralization of the physical places appointed to produce.


The inertia of backwardness

However, this does not mean that people really know how to take advantage of the growth in access: their cultural models, in this respect, are still backward or selfless, inertial with respect to the level of opportunities offered.

This is particularly true on one point: education and lifelong learning, as a rule of life.

Everyone is able to underline how much benefit this dimension entails, and it has been more than 30 years that this term was coined in its various more or less equivalent definitions: adult education, lifelong learning, recurrent education, etc.

But it was considered an abstract ideological aspiration until the objective conditions of production began to question something vital and established: not so much the workplace, which is an accidental aspect that is not part of the concepts proper to anthropology, as the role.

For anthropology, the phenomenon of unemployment resulting from technological innovation is an inertia of cultural models, rather than an inhuman event.

Hot societies and cold societies

And again, Lévi-Strauss’ contribution and his distinction between hot and cold societies appear illuminating.

The full coexistence between the internet and cabernet finds in this great anthropologist an extraordinary confirmation: complaining that automation and digitalization destroy jobs is a true attitude in a static image of society and the economy, but not in the actual dynamics of the history and existential preferences of the human being.

It is the coexistence between society and people who prefer a simple and even purely “manual” life and companies and people who access jobs in a purely virtual world.

Despite being in history, the first-type societies “seem to have developed, or maintained, a particular wisdom, which induces them to desperately resist any modification of their structure that allows history to break into them. Those which, even recently, had better protected their distinctive characteristics, appeared to us as societies inspired by the dominant concern to persevere in their being. The way in which they exploit the environment guarantees, at the same time, a modest standard of living and the protection of natural resources. Finally, a political life based on consensus, and such as not to allow decisions other than those taken unanimously, seems conceived for the sole purpose of excluding that engine of collective life that uses differential differences between power and opposition, majority and minority, exploiters and exploited. In short, these companies that we could call “cold”, because their internal climate is close to zero of historical temperature, are distinguished, for the reduced number of components and for the mechanical way of functioning, from the “hot” companies, which appeared in several points of the world following the Neolithic revolution, and in which the differentiation between castes and between classes is relentlessly solicited and produces energy and becoming. The scope of this distinction is above all theoretical, as there is probably no concrete society which, as a whole and in every single part, corresponds exactly to the first or second type “.

In fact, nothing prevents that the “cabernet” version of society and humanity cannot also use the tools of the new economy, just as the great gurus of the new economy are often photographed or filmed while enjoying a glass of prosecco or champagne made by farmers who still work with their hands. Or they give the lover a jewel created by a goldsmith craftsman who uses the techniques of the Sarmatian peoples of 6,000 years ago.

Therefore also the differential differences between men - some dominant, others dominated - can be used to produce culture and intangible values ​​(for example aesthetic), at an unsuspected rate.

The great anthropologist, faced with the overbearing intrusion of new technologies, asks us to adopt, together (citizens, politicians, digitalization gurus and simple farmers and craftsmen) a “vigilant surveillance” to defend (or protect) the full coexistence between internet and cabernet. And he concludes that this coexistence “would not even have understood the importance and necessity - if in hidden regions of the earth, some men had not stubbornly resisted history and had not remained as living proof of what we want to save. “ We must add, however, to this magnificent reflection by Lévi-Strauss that it is not necessary to go very far to find those who “resist history” and remain living proof of what we want to save: if we think even only of South Tyrol, to some extent this part of the world has the ability and the foresight to maintain a highly advanced civilization and at the same time the wisdom to preserve forms of “human, unsurpassedly human”.


Conclusions: return to pastoralism 

and creative idleness

After all, I believe that the continuation of herding with the fully automated factory is compatible in the same area or community. Also because the fully automated factory is much more similar to pastoralism than previously thought. The production of wealth is made by the sheep: the shepherd does not participate in their digestion.

Human evolution is sometimes curious (the myth of the eternal return would say): we came out of the nomadic era of pastoralism, to return to the era of automation.

The reference to nomadism is, however, the profound reference to the human, who, wandering in infinite spaces, perceives its essence.


Actuality: A new home for Italian virus hunters

Actuality:  A new home for Italian virus hunters - ATLANTIS

A new home for Italian virus hunters
Seingim will design the futuristic energy system of the new Human Technopole Research Palace in Milan.

 Andrea Mazzanti

Over 16,500 square meters dedicated to scientific research, 3,000 square meters of terraces and green roofs, 10 floors, a total area of ​​35,000 square meters and 800 workstations for researchers dedicated to biochemistry and molecular biology, cutting-edge equipment, a total investment exceeding 100 million Euros and 1,100 working days to build it.

These are the main numbers of the winning project of the international tender for the construction of the Human Technopole Campus in Milan assigned to the Studio Piuarch. The energy systems will be at the forefront and this is why the SEINGIM group has been called to be responsible.
At a time of great concern for the economy caused by the COVID-19 epidemic, there are companies that emerge and manage to win important orders. And it will be precisely in the sign of COVID-19 because it is exactly in the laboratories of the HT Foundation that the molecular structures of Coronavirus are being studied.
For Seingim, the design company of the Venetian entrepreneur Fabio Marabese, which has offices throughout the national territory and which in two years has doubled from 100 to 200 employees, this is an important success that consecrates it among the most important Italian engineering companies.
The design of the future building is the work of the Milanese studio “Piuarch”, signatory of other major redevelopment projects in the Milan area, while the design of the systems and energy management will be entirely handled by the Venetian company.
“We are proud that our project was the winner - underlines the President of Seingim, Fabio Marabese - this will be one of the new iconic buildings in Milan, a symbol of the resurrection and recovery after the tragedy of COVID-19. This Campus dedicated to scientific research also shows us the way forward in the post Coronavirus environment, research and innovation are the basis of our future and never we have never been aware of it as much as during this period!”.
But in addition to being competitive and looking at market opportunities with interest, in this particular emergency situation Seingim is focusing on its staff above anything else. “We do everything to guarantee that our collaborators work in safety - continues Marabese - we have adopted valid remote working systems that allow us to remain completely operational even without access to the company. A method that also allows significant savings for our employees and that could be useful even after this emergency is over”.
In addition to working from home, Seingim has also provided all its employees with a special insurance against possible COVID-19 infection effects.
“To express maximum gratitude to those who allow the company to continue to meet deadlines and to carry out all orders, - concludes Marabese - we have decided to add this additional protection. The hope is that this insurance isn’t needed by anyone, but it represents a concrete sign of attention towards our team and all families”.


Italian Excellence in the World: Jesolo

Italian Excellence in the World: Jesolo - ATLANTIS

The tourist offer of Jesolo


Jesolo, a city evolved for services, comfort, organization of roads, safety, quality, offer of accommodation facilities and leisure opportunities. Able to look at today’s needs, already thinking about tomorrow. Always with the ability to create the conditions to make its guests feel truly at home, with the added value of the splendid beach, the crystal clear sea, awarded with the Blue Flag, countless attractions and opportunities for fun.

This is Jesolo. A golden beach, well managed by the bathing establishments always careful to invest in services and with dedicated spaces for four-legged friends, which extends between the shady Pineta, a real green pearl for the city, whose path is marked from the works of art represented on the walls of the houses, and the most modern and well-equipped establishments on the Adriatic. The beach is ideal for sports, such as beach volleyball, windsurfing, sailing, outdoor fitness, for playing with children on the playgrounds, or simply relaxing in the sun or taking a walk. The Water sport center is the meeting place for all those who are driven to try any kind of emotion by facing and loving the sea. Wake Board, Kite Surf, Canoe, Stand up Paddle, Surf, Skimboard, Catamaran, Windsurf, Tube or Banana Boat.

And the Centro Velico Sun & sea is located on the beach of Jesolo west, it is the ideal place to practice many sports such as sailing, windsurfing, stund up paddle, surfing. In addition to sailing courses of various levels on sailing dinghies and / or catamarans, it offers basic windsurfing courses and sup lessons.

A cutting-edge beach for the safety of bathers that offers relaxing holiday opportunities. A beach that has obtained the recognition of the Green Flag, assigned by Italian Pediatricians as a particularly suitable location for children.

A beach that, first case in Italy (later imitated by other places), allows to fulfill the dream of a life, that of marriage. In Jesolo, in fact, it is possible to get married on the beach. It is the same municipality that makes the location available to the Oro Beach bathhouse (via Vittorio Veneto), where a registry office has been located.

About this sandy area, a few steps away is the “Nemo beach”, an example of inclusive social tourism. Easy access paths, free parking facing the sea, 56 large free pitches with sun beds and deck chairs raised above the standard height and platforms for wheelchair access. On the security front, Nemo Beach boasts a rescue station with dog units. Wheelchairs allow those with motor problems to immerse themselves in the water.

From the beach to the sea, feeling like modern pirates. Throughout the summer, from Monday to Friday, sail with the pirate crew of galleon Jolly Roger for an exciting adventure at boarding the enemy galleon. An excursion in the middle of the sea, with departures from the beaches of Jesolo, lasting an hour and a half will take you into the magical world of pirates and the Captain and his crew will guide you to conquer the enemy galleon’s chest! With swords in hand the boarding will then begin to the enemy galleon that has crossed the route ...

For those who want to try the thrills on a four wheel, here is the go-kart circuit Pista Azzurra. Thanks to its very technical track, the Pista Azzurra is considered a test bench to measure the speed and set-up qualities of the vehicle by the new drivers. Two tracks give the opportunity to satisfy the desire to experience the thrill of speed that is felt with a kart. The Minimoto also find space on the Pista Azzurra, through a 715-meter track which is considered extremely technical by the drivers.

And when it comes to wonders of the sea, here is Sea Life, a real marine park - which follows the exceptional success of the one opened in Gardaland in 2008 - with 30 large tanks with 5000 specimens belonging to over 100 aquatic species of all the seas of the globe. A unique path, which will lead the visitor to discover many environments, in an escalation of experiences, which will also represent the culture, values ​​and history of Venice.

From Sea Life to Tropicarium Park, a real immersion in the world of nature, with many animals from all over the world, accompanied by a very hospitable and comfortable environment for the whole family. The overall path is covered and accessible to disabled people, for over four hundred specimens of animals. The visit includes three itineraries: Tropicarium with monkeys, butterflies, reptiles, penguins and saurians of all kinds; Predators with large sharks and large crocodiles; Aquarium with many tropical fish of all shapes and colors! The managers of the Tropicarium for this summer have also added the “Football on display”, a fantastic exhibition on the great champions who have made the history of football.

And speaking of games, there is the goal for adults and children. The Jesolo Golf Club is immersed in the verdant nature of the game course: greens and fairways frame an elegant and well-kept environment, a true natural paradise, also ideal for those who are not golfers. A recommended place to take a break in the tranquility of the greenery, a stone’s throw from the sea, away from city noise. A high-class project that enhances an entire area of ​​900 thousand square meters, with the goal of perfect synchrony between Golf and Wellness. A complete offer of facilities and tracks for players of all levels, perfectly integrated into the sweetness of the coastal landscape and pleasantly crossed by the sea breeze. And then there is Adventure Golf, the only themed miniature golf course in Jesolo. Among palm trees, waterfalls, bodies of water and paths that give life to a real tropical environment, the players face each other along two possible tracks in which to test their skills. 4000 square meters, 24 holes .. but only one winner.

And if you want to discover the area, which goes beyond the beach and the sea, there are many initiatives and projects that allow you to enjoy the environment of Jesolo. Starting with the “Jesolo Ambient Bike” project, a guide to discovering over 150 km of cycle paths. There are 6 routes designed and planned to integrate the tourist offer and give the opportunity to discover the area and its characteristics while being in contact with nature. For safe and responsible cycle tourism, the guide provides information about the assistance centers, road signs, farms that can be reached by bike from Jesolo, many tips for pedaling safely and all the advantages of cycling. And for those who never want to separate from the bike, or for those who practice it in a competitive way and need to train often, the “Bike Hotels” can be found on www.jesolo.it.

All the main attractions are also accessible during the evening hours.



And when the sun disappears on the horizon over the sea, there is a whole people coming out of the closet. They are the people of the night, the one whose existence you would not suspect between umbrellas and deck chairs. Yet it exists, and loves fun in its varied facets, be it music, dance, cinema, long walks on the shore or the amusement park. The coast has become the territory of experimentation for fun: here fashions, trends were born, here slogans, parties and ways of partying on the beach were invented. In short, times can change, but Jesolo continues to always remain the capital of entertainment, thanks to its forward-looking ability to change its skin, while remaining true to itself.

Transported by the long, immense walk. It is the unrivaled shopping street, which stretches along the longest pedestrian island in Europe, from one end of the city to the other, populated by over 1200 of shops, restaurants, bars and trendy clubs. Going through it is like entering a kaleidoscope of mixes that ignite the senses and feelings. The essence of Jesolo is immediately perceived: its ability to multiply, square after square, flashes of colors, references to windows, innovative commercial spaces, bazaars, aromas of authentic flavors and gusts of sea and salt. An unparalleled natural shopping center, frequented by a colorful humanity, the meeting point of many cultures, which goes beyond modernity and already tells pages of the future.

And if you want to stroll imagining you are a star, here is the Lungomare delle Stelle. Seafront like the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Since 2001 Jesolo recognizes great characters from the world of entertainment, television, music, science and sport, a stretch of promenade. A unique event of its kind. During a public ceremony with a large party in the square, the title of a stretch of walk, then the cast of the hands which is then kept in an exhibition space of the Kursaal in Piazza Brescia. The first was Alberto Sordi. Away, away came the likes of Mike Bongiorno, Sofia Loren, Katia Ricciarelli, Andrea Bocelli, Gina Lollobrigida, Carla Fracci ... up to the most recent Alessandro Del Piero, Federica Pellegrini and the Pooh.

For children there is Newjesolandia, the new themed amusement park in Jesolo. Developed in an area of ​​20000 square meters at the gates of Lido di Jesolo, it offers attractions and fun for young and old with attention to families. A new area to give you maximum fun for pleasant evenings with your family. Open every evening from 8pm until late at night, the park offers a complex of 35 attractions, well-stocked confectionery stands, evenings with entertainment and special events. All the attractions of Newjesolandia Park offer a special combination of adventure and fun for all ages.

But also the foam rubber. A special day for the youngest members of the family? Only the soft amusement park Gommapiuma can guarantee it, a real outdoor gym with many maxi inflatable games on which to jump and climb, suitable for the release of children. Play, fun and light-heartedness for children and relaxation for parents.

And if you want to experience the thrill of looking at Jesolo from above, in a whirlwind of emotions, here is the Ferris wheel, the gigantic attraction located in Piazza Brescia.

For those who want to try the thrills on a four wheel, here is the go-kart circuit Pista Azzurra. Thanks to its very technical track, the Pista Azzurra is considered a test bench to measure the speed and set-up qualities of the vehicle by the new drivers. Two tracks give the opportunity to satisfy the desire to experience the thrill of speed that is felt with a kart. The Minimoto also find space on the Pista Azzurra, through a 715-meter track which is considered extremely technical by the drivers.

Jesolo is also a… sea of ​​exhibitions in the evening. Here then is the Sea Life, a real marine park - which follows the exceptional success of the one opened in Gardaland in 2008 - with 30 large tanks with 5000 specimens belonging to over 100 aquatic species from all the seas of the globe. A unique path, which will lead the visitor to discover many environments, in an escalation of experiences, which will also represent the culture, values ​​and history of Venice.

From Sea Life to Tropicarium Park, a real immersion in the world of nature, with many animals from all over the world, accompanied by a very hospitable and comfortable environment for the whole family. The overall path is covered and accessible to disabled people, for over four hundred specimens of animals. The visit includes three itineraries: Tropicarium with monkeys, butterflies, reptiles, penguins and saurians of all kinds; Predators with large sharks and large crocodiles; Aquarium with many tropical fish of all shapes and colors! The managers of the Tropicarium for this summer have also added the “Football on display”, a fantastic exhibition on the great champions who have made the history of football.

And then there is Adventure Golf, the only themed miniature golf course in Jesolo. Among palm trees, waterfalls, bodies of water and paths that give life to a real tropical environment, the players face each other along two possible tracks in which to test their skills. 4000 square meters, 24 holes .. but only one winner

For those who want to try the thrills on a four wheel, here is the go-kart circuit Pista Azzurra. Thanks to its very technical track, the Pista Azzurra is considered a test bench to measure the speed and set-up qualities of the vehicle by the new drivers. Two tracks give the opportunity to satisfy the desire to experience the thrill of speed that is felt with a kart. The Minimoto also find space on the Pista Azzurra, through a 715-meter track which is considered extremely technical by the drivers.

Remember that Jesolo can be visited, or simply traveled from one end to the other, aboard the panoramic train, which can be accessed from anywhere on the long pedestrian area.



At nightfall the bars and disco bars of Jesolo come alive and become the reference points of the nightlife. From the aperitif to after dinner you can get involved in the party atmosphere of this lively seaside resort and enjoy the fantastic proposals of each location. There really is something for everyone! From live music to karaoke, from delicious happy hours to appetizing cocktails, in Jesolo bars nothing is left to chance, but everything is perfectly oriented to genuine and pure fun. One is the main objective of the managers of the Jesolo bars: to spend special evenings, helping guests to escape from everyday life and to relax their mind by letting themselves go completely to fun, friends and good company. All thanks to quality, well-organized and organized entertainment and a constant desire to experiment and innovate.



Living the disco in Jesolo isn’t just fun: it’s real emotion! The themed evenings, legendary events, the refined atmosphere, the lights, the design details and the unique sensations, which only by walking on the Jesolo dancefloors can be experienced, offer truly unforgettable evenings. Pure empathy! There is really something for all tastes and the non-stop fun flows uninterrupted until dawn. Enter the myth at an international level, the Jesolo discos are enriched every year with novelties, always remaining fashionable, following the most glamorous dictates, but above all giving way to real trends. Discover the nightlife of Jesolo: quality, emotions, music and lots of good company will make you spend the best nights of your holidays. 

The Book: Eventi e personaggi straordinari della Seconda Guerra Mondiale

The Book: Eventi e personaggi straordinari della Seconda Guerra Mondiale - ATLANTIS

Twenty-two exciting stories, 22 amazing short stories that share the frame of the Second World War. Domenico Vecchioni, a former career diplomat and now recognized historical popularizer, makes us live or relive, with his usual rapid and engaging style, little-known events or completely forgotten or told so far in a fragmented way. From the “battle of Los Angeles” to the “singular fate of the English grandson of Adolf Hitler”, from the “enigma of the Lady be Good” to the “last bombing”, from “espionage at the Salon Kitty” to “Hugo Boss, the tailor of the Nazi regime ”, from“ Angel Sanz-Briz, the angel of Budapest ”to the“ doctor of the devil ”, the author leads us with a sure hand through an unusual and unforgettable gallery of truly extraordinary episodes and characters.


Domenico Vecchioni, former Ambassador of Italy, has held numerous positions at the Farnesina and abroad. He was also on duty in Le Havre, Buenos Aires, Brussels (NATO), Strasbourg (Council of Europe), Madrid and Nice. Lastly, he was Ambassador of Italy to Cuba. Historian and essayist, he collaborates with various newspapers of international politics and history, in particular with BBC History / Italy. He has about thirty historical and popular works to his credit, with a special focus on the biographies of the great characters of history and the great figures of espionage. His last two works were: “The ten secret operations that changed the Second World War” (2018) and “The ten spy women who made history” (2019).
Website: www.domenicovecchioni.it
For Mazzanti Libri he is the Editorial Director of the Secret Wars Series. 

Domenico Vecchioni

Eventi e personaggi
straordinari della Seconda Guerra Mondiale

Collana Guerre Segrete

ISBN 9788836210138
Euro 20,00

Copyright © 2020
ME Publisher - Mazzanti Libri, Venezia




Comunicato: Love at the time of Coronavirus

Comunicato: Love at the time of Coronavirus - ATLANTIS

Love at the time of Coronavirus

In these days of pandemic, so many words were spent to describe the serious and worrying national health condition and many,  too many, apocalyptic comments  involved frightened viewers who sought confirmation on social media of  what  they  had  heard,  finding, in addition to the news about the decrees,  the number of  infected, of deaths of healed from contagion of Covid-19, famous phrases and aphorisms accompanied by images depicting the Tricolor flag.

Some images went viral: an Italy wrapped in a blanket and treated like a newborn baby; photos of exhausted nurses sleeping on dull computers and faces marked with protective health masks and goggles. More:  images of pizzas delivered to the Emergency Room by benevolent people and   volunteers who do their best to contain the spread of the disease, unknown and devious.

Appointments at every hour of the day and evening to organize flash mobs with  songs performed from balconies in a more or less in a tuned way, lit candles, roaring applause and musical instruments accompanied by all kinds of improvised percussion; all this to exorcise fear, to show gratitude, to make a single voice that gathers and unites  from North to South an often divided territory and  where often blame  each other for  their own evils. This time all united in one unique voice to face the virus, to defeat fear.

Not even at the 2006 Soccer World Cup there were so many flags flying on social media and on balconies like today,  year 2020 and then I wonder: why do you remember us love to be a nation only in the rare moments of “protagonism?”.

With victory at the 2006 Soccer World Cup,  after Brazil and as the same as Germany, Italy is the second nation in the world have won four world championships; it is  the country that enriches us, generation after generation,  of art, poetry, literature, lyric and beauty; ingenuity distinguishes us, imagination characterizes us and, looking at our sea and admiring our mountains,  every  stranger raises to the sky a glass of good wine and thanks for being able to enjoy so much beauty, enclosed in a boot-shaped casket.

Of this momentary patriotism let us make it a way of life and get used to being united always; let us show the world the true strength of this nation and its people. Governments change, seasons change, the men we trust change, but it never changes and it will never change who we are. Let’s dress up the soul of “Tricolore” and pass on this love and passion to our children, so that they learn the spirit of belonging and, wherever they go to build their future, they are proud of their homeland.  

We cheer for the team of the heart for life, we cheer sitting next to each other in the stadiums carrying the song of encouragement with a human wave and we paint our face green, white and red only if we win; but we are always Italian, at any time,  be it  in victory or defeat. The real strength is to be not ashamed and to know how to stand up and raise our heads, keeping clearly the colors that we carry with pride in our faces.

If from moments of complexity come opportunities  that affect the future, we have not to miss this opportunity,  if it is painful, to show who we are and with what kind of strength, determination and resilience we are able to raise us and, despite the wrongs suffered, to have humanity to go further and help the others.

Comunication: well-being

Comunication: well-being - ATLANTIS

Why well-being is a global socio-economic fact

Today, taking up and delving into some previously published articles, also given the particular moment that the whole of humanity faces, I want to argue on the issue of well-being as a global socio-economic  factor.

3, 2015, in Vancouver. TED Talk by Bill Gates. The intervention of the father of DOS System and Microsoft, now an economic tycoon, is about a seemingly unprecedented and unlikely subject. He declares that the real risk to humanity is not a nuclear war, as was strongly felt in the United States in his childhood and youth years; the real danger is a flu virus. “If something kills 10 million people in the coming decades,  it’s more likely to be a highly contagious virus, rather than a war.” Faced with these words, heard again now, supporters of conspiracy theories will certainly claim that Gates knew things that ordinary people don’t know. In some ways it’s true; I’ll explain.

In the age of global and easy access to information, people’s curiosity and desire to deepen is, usually, close to zero. This lack of information research and comparison of news (two things often very far apart), all of which are easy to circulate in the media, means that whatever is said and disseminated can be considered as true. Moreover, few people want to check what is behind the information or the news. If someone, listening to Bill Gates’s entire speech, still goes to the root of the information, they would understand that Gates’s statements are easy to match in reality.

It is not about politics or propaganda, when he says that if humanity and the countries that represent it invested heavily in scientific research, especially the one linked to possible events, we would find ourselves investing less resources to cope the often dramatic consequences of some events that are now of global significance.

Communication plays a key role in all of this. I start from some simple considerations: we talk about the world, the planet, sustainability as an environmental fact. When epidemics happen, as is the case with wars, earthquakes, devastating fires, floods, the only concern is that it happens somewhere else on the planet. We all know that, aquifers aside, the physical approach of distant areas of the planet between them is neither instantaneous nor immediate. So if it happens anywhere else in the world, we feel safe.

Let us try, at least for a moment, to talk about humanity, about populations. We immediately realize that it is something more mobile, fluid. So it scares us more, we feel less safe. So much so that the debate on migration flows is very heated, for reasons also different from health.

Gates points out that valid prevention criteria require “efficient health systems in poor countries,” where “we will see the epidemic well in advance.” He speaks of reservists but as “a health system, made up of so many trained people who are ready to start with the right skills”. He talks about “logistics and security” of a military character and, above all, of simulations: “on germs, not war, to see where the gaps are”. It calls for “more research and development in the area of vaccines and diagnostics.” Insists Gates: “I don’t have an exact budget of how much it could cost, but I’m sure it’s very low compared to the potential damage. The World Bank estimates that if there was an epidemic of global flu, the world’s wealth would shrink by more than 3 trillion dollars and there would be millions and millions of deaths.” It was 2015, now we’re inside it.

The UN resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015 (the same year as Gates talk) states that “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. For information, the Agenda was also adopted by the European Union and by Italy specifically. The US adopted it but during the last administration raised a number of exceptions, as China did.

The Agenda is about Sustainable Development: it’s not about the environment, it’s not just about the environment. There are 17 formalized goals (Sustainable Development Goals or SDGs), for a total of 169 targets. I quote some of them: 3. Good health and well-being; 6. Clean water and sanitation; 11. Sustainable cities and communities; 17. Partnerships for the goals. There is no single way to achieve sustainability, that is, to give a future to people, generations, those born and those who have yet to be born. However, there is only one way to make the future sustainable and it concerns the economy no less than health. We need planning and prevention, we need to be less involved in purely idealistic rhetoric and we all be part of a change. 

In the days that flow as this article comes out, the whole of humanity is facing a pandemic (so defined by the World Health Organization). It may sound trivial but it is a pandemic due to a flu virus. A virus that is not in itself lethal (but becomes so in combination with other health factors). A virus that kills if we don’t all row in the same direction to limit contagion and chase the health contrast. We must pursue ourselves because we have not prepared before and we must hope (the facts demonstrate the absolute inability of governments but also of the citizens) to be all active parties to contain their spread.

Working with a view to Well-being index means preparing, culturally, operationally, structurally, to deal with health problems that affect not countries but men, who move. A fluid mass that is not ready to be controlled and, even less, to self-manage and self-control. It means changing course and how we do things.

Data on hand, for the purists of the economic data, also means economic development but persistent, lasting one; means employment but in the other direction and with different distribution of resources; means innovation not only of product but of processes.

I close with two authoritative phrases of living authors that I would define above all suspicion, however follows:

“In the Laudato sì Encyclical Letter, I emphasized that today more than ever everything is intimately connected and the protection of the environment cannot be disjointed from justice to the poor and from the solution of the structural problems of the world economy. It is therefore necessary to correct growth patterns that are incapable of ensuring respect for the environment, the reception of life, the care of the family, social equity, the dignity of workers, the rights of future generations. Unfortunately, the call to become aware of the seriousness of the problems and, above all, to implement a new economic model, the result of a culture of communion, based on fraternity and fairness, remains unheard of. “ (Pope Francis in the invitation to the event “Economy of Francis”)

“What surprised me the most in  men in the West is that they lose  their  health  to  make  money  and then  lose  money to recover  health. They think so much about the future that they forget to live the present in such a way that they cannot  live either the present or the future. They live as if they should never die and die as if they had never  lived.”  (Dalai Lama) 


Comunication: Uchronia

Comunication: Uchronia - ATLANTIS

Uchronia: the value of time, the sense of history

“In the risk society, the past loses the power to determine the present.” It is 1986 when Ulrich Beck, in his Risk Society. Towards a New Modernity, defines for the first time the conceptual perimeter of his theory on the risk society. The geopolitical, social and economic scenario of the time strongly influenced the German sociologist’s thought, prompting him to replace a social model based on wealth distribution with one, certainly problematic, based on risk distribution. Three years before the fall of the Berlin Wall, the world was already experiencing a series of events that would have radically changed it. 1986 was the year of the Chernobyl disaster, the war in Libya and Libyan terrorism in Europe, the toxic cloud of Lake Nyos, in Cameroon, as well as of the explosion of the Challenger shuttle. Technology risks, economic aberrations, environmental unpredictability,new forms of international and internal terrorism. Everything seems to legitimize the development of a new definition of risk not only as a non-accidental component, but rather as an ontologically relevant element for the configuration of the society in the future to come.

Today, thirty-four years later, we have experienced epochal transformations, on a geopolitical, technological and socio-economic level, witnessing a process of progressive transformation of the relationship between society and reality, between the human dimension and the technological dimension, between physiological localisms and the necessary globalist scenarios. Reality has changed, the way of knowing reality has changed, and the way we understand the same knowledge of reality has changed. We have witnessed, and still are witnessing, the overlap of a technological revolution, a sociological revolution and an epistemological revolution. If technology provides us with potential tools of extraordinary importance, with a very strong impact on social dynamics, however, there remains a fragility in the thought processing processes. Existence seems increasingly concentrated on contingency management, in the absence of long-term planning capacity, in the absence of life plans, in the absence of wide-ranging strategies in the national and international political scene. We can access knowledge more quickly, more effectively and without distance limits, but the basic skills to manage it seem to be lacking. We can know more, but we no longer know how to know. What’s worse, we no longer know how to deal with what we can’t know. If on the one hand the reality we know is increasingly shown as a system characterized by a non-reducible component of unpredictability, on the other we realize how much the value of knowledge is increasingly confused, erroneously, with the role of information.

Already in 1980 Alvin Toffler, in his The Third Wave, had spoken for the first time in a structured way about the concept of the infosphere, which profoundly changed the global socio-cultural ecosystem, “adding a whole new strata of communication to the social system.” Communication acquires a substantial role, in the processes of knowledge production and in the dynamics of defining the world. By breaking the patterns of a merely descriptive function, communication somehow acquires a defining character in the processes of knowledge production. The theme is closely related, at diplomatic level, to the tools of soft power, gradually acquiring a much wider role, first in the strategic sphere, then in the elusive scenario of information warfare. The permeability between reality and virtuality, between phenomenon and representation , between autonomous processing and induced conception determines increasingly critical of cultural vulnerability, caused, among other things, by the inability of the educational system to enhance complex thinking. In general, a society unable to critically process the information it receives is a society unable to exercise its freedom of choice. In the specific context of a hyper-connected world, in which information and knowledge are based above all on the irruption of immaterial (digital) reality into material reality (sensitive life), a society unable to critically process information is a society that delegates decision-making power to others. If, on the one hand, we can recognize the theoretical legitimacy of the risk society, accepting unpredictability as an existential condition (an obvious concept, in the daily existence of each of us), on the other hand, we must develop tools and mentalities capable of doing so that the risk, once it becomes a phenomenon, is not enhanced by inadequate communication. In 1964 McLuhan, in his Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, affirmed that “the medium is the message”, highlighting the ability of the communication medium to exercise a substantial influence - not only formal - on the information transmitted. Today, in the era of hybridized reality, of dematerialized message and widespread information, the medium is no longer just the vehicle for transmitting a representation of reality, but becomes a determining and co-essential part of reality itself.

In the conceptual context of the risk society, it is necessary to recognize the need to contribute to the education of thought, so that widespread communication becomes an act of responsibility. If information has the ability to influence reality, through the exercise of indirect influence on the orientation of social thought, today information risks becoming an accelerator of risks, an incubator of aggravating factors, an instrument of strategic disinformation. The Spanish philosopher Xabier Zubiri, in his Naturaleza, historia y Dios (1944), used to say that history is the result of a process of openings and limitations, constantly influenced by society, which faces the risk of unpredictability with a “determined system of possibilities “. Perhaps today we are facing a phase of profound transformation in the development of social thought. A historical era that questions us, precisely on the vulnerabilities of the media, socio-cultural, geopolitical context that we have helped to create with all our actions. A scenario that questions us about the effectiveness of our system of possibilities, our capacity for social resilience and cultural, political and economic adaptability. In a dimension that certainly evokes the risk society, which certainly makes us perceive the fragile weight of the infosphere, we are called to go beyond the limits of our conceptual categories. Beck suggests addressing the unpredictability of risk by letting it be not the past but the future that determines our present. Perhaps we could start again to analyze our present, to understand what its potentials and vulnerabilities are, to listen to the teaching of the past and imagine the possible faces of the future. Perhaps, we could start asking ourselves, as individuals and as a society, what the meaning of history is, and what we want the value of our time to be.