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1/2022

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In this issue

In this issue - ATLANTIS

 

Massimo Annati, Contradmiral.

 

Domenico Letizia. Journalist.

 

Eleonora Lorusso, Journalist.

 

Agata Lucchetta, Reasercher.

 

Giorgio Radicati, Ambassador.

 

Riccardo Roiter Rigoni, Photograph.

 

Luca Volpato, Italian Office Council of Europe.

Cover: Vladimir Putin

Cover: Vladimir Putin - ATLANTIS

WHO IS VLADIMIR PUTIN

 

Of modest origins, he graduated in law from the University of Leningrad, in 1975 he entered the KGB, for which he worked, from 1985 to 1989, in the German Democratic Republic. Back in Russia, he sided with the pro-perestroika wing and, after leaving the KGB in 1991, held various positions in the municipal administration of St. Petersburg, headed by the reformist A. Sobčak, of whom he became a close collaborator. In 1996 he moved to Moscow and joined the staff of B. N. El´cin. Appointed head of the Federal Security Council (formerly KGB) in 1998 and, in March 1999, head of the Russian Security Council, in August of the same year he took up the post of prime minister. In this capacity he resumed military operations in Chechnya, earning the support of nationalist public opinion. After Yel´cin's resignation (December 1999), he assumed the role of head of state ad interim and was confirmed as president in the March 2000 elections, obtaining 53% of the votes. The Russo-Chechen conflict played a central role during his first presidential term. In this regard, the main objectives were: to eradicate Chechen terrorism, to give back to Russia a territory that historically belonged to it, to restore Russian authority in the Caucasian area, which had waned due to the influence of the USA. On the internal economic level, his administration aimed at economic recovery, and during 2001 he promoted reforms aimed at the privatization of important state-owned enterprises. Putin has implemented a series of reforms in the pension, banking and fiscal fields, and his interventions in the economic field have achieved satisfactory results (increase in industrial and agricultural production, and in exports); he has also launched a vigorous campaign against corruption, which has claimed some excellent victims, such as the magnates B. Berezovskij, V. Gusinskij and M. Chodorkovskij. On the diplomatic level, it has increased relations with China and the Indian Union, in the context of a general relaunch of the strategic role of the country and the rebalancing of relations with European countries but above all with Washington, relations which have cooled also following the recovery, by President GW Bush, of the missile defense project (the space shield). After the attacks in New York and Washington on September 11, 2001, Putin supported the US in the fight against international terrorism. The resumption of dialogue culminated in the agreements of May 2002 which provided for the commitment of Russia and the United States to the reduction of nuclear arsenals and collaboration between Moscow and NATO.

In 2003 he opposed the Anglo-American coalition's plan of armed intervention in Iraq against the dictatorial regime of S. Ḥussain. On the domestic front, on the occasion of the elections of March 2004, he was re-elected with 71.2% of the votes, thanks to the lack of real opposition, but also thanks to the support of public opinion towards the central points of his policy: firm fight against terrorism and acceleration of the growth rate of the economy. In 2005 he was the first Russian president to travel to the state of Israel. He also dedicated himself with determination to strengthening ties with the states united in the CIS (Community of Independent States), especially following the progressive enlargement of the European Union and NATO to the former socialist countries. After the inauguration of his close collaborator D.A. Medvedev following the elections of March 2008, Putin took up the position of prime minister again, continuing to maintain a leading political role thanks also to the strengthening of the prime minister's competences, particularly in foreign policy. In the parliamentary consultations held in December 2011, the United Russia party, of which Putin has been leader since 2001, again achieved the majority, albeit with a sharp decline in consensus: it obtained 49.5% of the votes (15% in less than in previous elections), winning 238 seats out of 450 thanks to the proportional system that provides for the redistribution of the consensus collected by the parties that have not passed the 7% barrier. The presidential elections, held in March 2012 in a climate of violent social unrest, saw Putin's re-appointment (60%) for a third term. Although in the following years the economic crisis worsened and mass protests continued against the limitation of civil rights guaranteed by the Constitution, the president's party won the legislative of September 2016 with 54.2% of the votes obtaining an absolute majority. of seats, while in the consultations of September 2021 United Russia won with 49.8% of the votes, winning over two thirds of the seats. Elected for a fourth term in the consultations of March 2018 with 60% of the preferences, in July 2020 the approval through a referendum of the constitutional reforms proposed by the politician, which include, among other things, the cancellation of the constraint of the second presidential term consecutive, could allow Putin to reapply for two more terms, remaining in power until 2036. In February 2022 the politician relaunched the imperialist plan already outlined in 2014 with the annexation of Crimea, invading the territory of Ukraine and recognizing the independence of the self-proclaimed people's republics of Donetsk and Luhansk, in Donbass. (Treccani)

STRATEGY AND GEOPOLITICS

STRATEGY AND GEOPOLITICS - ATLANTIS

Finis Afghanistan

Massimo Annati

 

Afghanistan has often been called the "tomb of empires" due to the defeats suffered by the British Empire, the Soviet Union, and finally by the United States and its allies. In reality, the story is obviously much more complex than a simple label can tell, and for centuries those rugged valleys have been the site of political-influenced trade. The British themselves, despite having suffered severe military defeats in the nineteenth century, had finally succeeded in their attempt to establish a buffer state to stem Tsarist expansionism by installing an Emir in their favor, and keeping the country in their own sphere of influence. influence until 1919. That famous label, however, can also suggest something more, given that behind every defeat suffered in Afghan territory, there has always been another rival "imperial" power to take advantage of it, as in a war by proxy. This has had a particular response since 1979, with the Soviet invasion that was defeated after 10 years of very hard war, not only by the Afghan mujahideen, but also by the weapons and billions of dollars sent by the United States and the Saudi Arabia, as well as the use of neighboring Pakistan transformed into a support rear for anti-Soviet fighters. Pakistan itself has been profoundly changed by this enormous flow of money and blind political support, transforming itself from a secular, albeit shaky democracy into a fundamentalist regime that gave hospitality and support first to the mujahideen and then to the Taliban and al-Qaeda terrorists.

In reality, we could say that behind every defeated or stopped empire, there is always another Power that seeks to gain some advantage. This was the case with the "Great Game" between Tsarist Russia and Great Britain, and then between the Soviet Union and the United States. Now, after the abandonment of the country by the West, there are several Powers seeking to obtain advantages: first of all China which aims at exploiting the country's great mineral resources and creating a network of infrastructure for the Belt and Road. Initiative presenting itself as something other than the West and interested exclusively in business, not human rights; then Pakistan, the true winner of this never-ending war, as protector of the Taliban, a country that has now transformed itself into a nuclear power controlled by Islamic fundamentalists, albeit an ally of China in an anti-Indian role; Russia which through the neighboring ex-Soviet Central Asian republics Uzbekistan and Tajikistan can create a security buffer and control trade; finally Turkey, whose growing neo-Ottoman ambitions led it to enter into agreements with neighboring Turkmenistan, which could prove to be the power capable of ensuring a certain level of stability and security, at least in part of the country.

There have been heavy criticisms of President Biden's work, but the undeniable disaster was caused by Donald Trump's decision to negotiate the Doha agreement directly with the Taliban, excluding the Afghan national government, which thus appeared even weaker than what it already was. When Trump announced the date of the withdrawal of US troops without placing any conditions, it became clear that there was nothing more to discuss, and the "save whoever can" was opened. Moreover, it was not only the electoral reasons that pushed in that direction. After 20 years of war, it didn't seem realistic to think that things could miraculously change in the 21st or 22nd year ...

The United States, as on other occasions, quickly won the war, but proved unable to manage peace, having neither the mentality nor, above all, political directives. The list of strategic errors is really long. He did not take advantage of the favorable moment to eliminate the Taliban leadership and was allowed to take refuge in Pakistan, from where they continued to manage the operations almost undisturbed. An effective decision was not taken on combating opium cultivation, which represented the main source of financing for the Taliban, oscillating between the acceptance of the phenomenon so as not to impoverish the farmers too much, and the eradication campaigns carried out on an occasional basis. . Pervasive corruption was not fought at all levels of the Afghan administration, not least because there were undoubtedly US subjects who drew great personal advantages from this situation. Finally, as can be read in a surprising report of August 2021 by the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, the US personnel who were sent under contract to guarantee the reconstruction and security activities, were often lacking any competence, to the point that sometimes he had only been trained through online courses with PowerPoint presentations.

After the defeat suffered, given that no one seemed to have first realized how fragile the structures of the Afghan government were and the lack of credibility it enjoyed from its own citizens, the West is faced with two main problems. The first is to try to ensure respect for human rights for those who have remained in the country, especially for women, who are the first to pay the consequences of hasty abandonment. The second, more important from a strategic point of view, is to prevent the country from once again representing a base of operations for the Islamic fundamentalist threat. On the first aspect, there have been countless requests from the West and international organizations, but the only likely instrument seems to be to link the granting of part of the financial aid, without which the country does not seem to be able to survive. the adoption of verifiable social and humanitarian openings. On the second aspect, the story is more complex. Indeed, the Afghan government appears to be intent on re-establishing an Islamic state within national borders, but with no interest in building the Khorasan Caliphate, as is instead the objective of the ISIS-K with which the Taliban are currently struggling.

The so-called Khorasan includes Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Pakistan, and would therefore represent a very serious threat to the stability of the region and the whole world. But in those parts no one can really say if the alliances are permanent or if some tribe or family does not decide to change sides, given the convenience of the moment. The goal of ISIS-K is to export jihad all over the world, and to eliminate all infidels and apostates, including Shiite or "moderate" Muslims.

Therefore, putting aside the useless discussions about what would have been better to do, given that history has now taken a different path, the question of what should be done in the future remains open to avoid the possible spread of the jihadist threat.

The work of intelligence is essential to understand what is happening. Satellites, drones, spy planes play an indispensable role, but it is essential to rebuild Human Intelligence on the ground. The key point will probably be to understand whether the Taliban can really be considered allies in the war against ISIS-K, and whether to achieve this it will be necessary to sacrifice, or at least loosen, the moral imperative of respect for the human rights of the civilian population.

On a more strictly technical-military level, presumably the only tool available to the West will be represented by limited strikes conducted with combat drones, aircraft or cruise missiles. Given the nature of the Afghan territory, these are operations conducted by means based well outside the borders, which therefore require the authorization, or at least the acquiescence, of the neighboring countries that will be flown over during the operations. The Diego Garcia base and that of Doha could host some of these operations, but the air and naval forces located in the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea would also have a fundamental role, given the fewer restrictions due to authorizations by the host state. Not for nothing at the opening of hostilities in 2001 it was the naval vehicles that launched most of the attacks and also allowed the deployment of the first units of Marines and special forces with the use of tiltrotors and helicopters, albeit linked to the acquiescence of Pakistan which turned a blind eye to the overflight of its territory. So the role of the air and naval forces once again becomes fundamental even in the case of a country with no outlet to the sea like Afghanistan.

NEWS AND GEOPOLYTICS

NEWS AND GEOPOLYTICS - ATLANTIS

THE INFINITE WAYS OF DIPLOMACY

 

Putin does not reject anyone and, at the same time, he can cynically claim that he immediately entered into conversations with the Ukrainian government to seek a negotiated solution. In reality, his armed forces have never stopped escalating the aggression. In this poisoned atmosphere, international public opinion strongly fears the explosion of a nuclear war.

Three weeks after the beginning of the Russian invasion, the military, political and diplomatic situation remains confused and it seems difficult to feed the hope of reaching a rapid solution to the international crisis underway.

The conflict that is spreading, day by day, over the entire Ukrainian territory, with Russian attacks of unprecedented ferocity on the urban population, is increasingly affecting relations between Russia and the West ("first of all", the United States and member countries of NATO and the European Union). In this regard, on the one hand we continue to impose ever more severe economic sanctions on the country and "ad personam", while on the other we respond with the (not too) veiled threat to extend the conflict beyond the border and to employ, if necessary, nuclear weapons (sic!). At the same time, the Russians hit, clearly intimidating, military targets located a few kilometers from Polish territory, with the consequent risk of trespassing, where "foreign military personnel" usually reside with the task of training the Ukrainian army.

Noting the unexpected stubborn resistance of the army and the population, Putin firmly focuses on the strategy of tension, increasing the military effort on the ground, regardless of the massacre of civilians in progress and the hundreds of thousands of displaced refugees to whom, with so much dosed measure, the exit from cities tormented by almost uninterrupted bombing and living conditions on the verge of survival is allowed.

In this sense, he gives the disquieting impression of resembling a pilot who, during take off, has reached the "point of no return", when the only maneuver remains to accelerate "at full speed" to get up in air the aircraft and do not risk crashing to the ground.

The West, which has repeatedly declared itself opposed to armed intervention, focuses on long times, that is, those necessary to allow the sanctions to have full negative effects on the Russian economy. In the meantime, however, he must monitor not only the resistance on the ground of the Ukrainian army (a fundamental factor in evaluating the possibility or not that Zerensky will be able to start a negotiation capable of ending with an honorable compromise), but also the behavior of other protagonists. interested (for various reasons) in carving out a role, real or presumed, of mediator in the affair. First of all China.

Beijing shows equidistance, but in fact its language seems to support the reasons of Moscow, to which it is attracted for clear reasons of geo-political balance. At the same time, however, it cannot jeopardize trade relations with the United States and Europe, which in global economic terms are almost ten times higher than those with Russia. This is why Washington, on the one hand, urges an intervention on Moscow "ad adiuvandum", on the other, however, does not fail to remind the Chinese rulers that their (feared) double game would transform them from possible mediators into a sure target for retaliation American. It is the message that, in a nutshell, Sullivan delivered to Yang in the very recent meeting in Rome.

Erdogan also cultivates the ambition of peacemaker, but his (for some time) deteriorated relations with the West do not appear to be the best premise for carrying out that task in a neutral and, therefore, profitable way for both sides. However, it should be noted that Turkish plenipotentiaries are always in contact with the two belligerents, never ceasing to reiterate their willingness to favor the achievement of an agreement around, possibly, a trilateral table.

There remains Israel (which has not adhered to the economic sanctions imposed on Russia), whose Prime Minister, Naftali Bennet, has initiated a direct line with Putin, declaring himself ready to interpose his good offices to encourage a high-level dialogue between the two parties to the conflict, to be held, where possible, on Israeli territory. It is difficult, for the moment, to think that the initiative, albeit useful on the media level, could be successful due to the lack of specific political weight of the proponent, even if it is good not to underestimate the privileged relationship that traditionally Tel Aviv maintains with Washington as well as the origins Russians and Ukrainians of a large portion of the Israeli population. After all, the ways of diplomacy are endless ...

That said, Putin does not reject anyone and, at the same time, he can cynically claim that he immediately entered into conversations with the Ukrainian government to seek a negotiated solution, while in reality his armed forces have never stopped escalating the aggression.

In the last few hours, conflicting messages have been recorded on the progress of the situation. In fact, Lavrov's forecasts on the possibility of reaching an agreement with the government of Kiev are matched by the multiplication of indiscriminate Russian bombings on urban areas. The aired existence of a draft of a fifteen-point peace plan fails to allay fears of Putin's persistent desire to completely subdue Ukraine. Finally, Biden's serious threats publicly addressed to Putin (and promptly returned by him) have greatly raised the level of guard of the litigation between the two capitals and do not seem to coincide with the rumors (even authoritative), which are raised a little everywhere for the cessation of hostilities, probably on the wave of a certain negotiation flexibility which appeared for the first time in the latest statements by Zerensky.

In this atmosphere, poisoned by a conflict whose dire consequences have already been knocked down almost everywhere in various ways and measures, international public opinion strongly fears the explosion of a nuclear war. Well, one gets the impression that this very possible ending, devastating for everyone, has so far prevented the armed confrontation from enriching itself with new protagonists as well as from expanding beyond the Ukrainian borders.

 

Giorgio Radicati, Ambassador

 

 

CULTURAL HERITAGE AND GEOPOLITICS

CULTURAL HERITAGE AND GEOPOLITICS - ATLANTIS

Art, from international investigations and cultural diplomacy

Among the Italian excellences in the world, the Carabinieri of the Cultural Heritage Protection act within the Blue Casci of culture and on the national territory. From the end of 2022, the database will extend to social networks and the deep web

Geopolitics does not pass only through the world's chancelleries. If the conflict in Ukraine took place on the ground and in arms, there was no lack of sensational actions that also involved the cultural sphere, such as the suspension of collaborative actions and projects between different countries - including Italy - and Russia, in protest against military action. But it is not necessary to go to wars to explain the role of the cultural asset of the great international and European powers in particular, among which our country stands out, with the Carabinieri of the Protection of Cultural Heritage. The reason is explained by the commander, General Roberto Riccardi: «Culture is part of what a power expresses at an international level. We are a recognized excellence in this area worldwide, also because we were born in 1969, even before the UNESCO convention which invited all member countries to equip themselves with investigative units that dealt with investigations on art. We take care of precisely this: for example, we deal with the theft of works of art that impoverish our churches, our collections and our museums. But we also intervene in the event of clandestine excavations in archaeological areas and also of fakes, which damage the art market and many artists of the past and present ".

The budget of the Command's activity is remarkable: "In 53 years of history we have recovered over 3 million cultural assets and our investigations have almost always taken us outside national borders because the illicit trafficking of cultural assets does not stop in Italy. Often the richest markets on the planet are sought and the consequence is that often pieces of history and of our cultural identity end up in international auction houses, in antique galleries and private collections around the world, and sometimes even in museums. The recovery interventions, therefore, concern both goods stolen during conflicts, as in the case of the Second World War, and in the present, precisely in the context of illicit trafficking "explains General Riccardi.

It is no coincidence that the Carabinieri of the Cultural Heritage Protection command are part of the "Blue Helmets of culture": "This is an initiative, launched by Italy together with UNESCO: in 2016 we set up a task force, which is composed of officials from the Italian Ministry of Culture and the Carabinieri for the Protection of Cultural Heritage, who intervene under the auspices of UNESCO in countries affected by natural disasters or conflicts. An example is Iraq, where we are present even before the creation of the Blue Kash of culture, exactly since 2003 and continuously. In Italy, on the other hand, since 2016 we have intervened following the earthquakes that affected various areas affected by earthquakes. The following year, however, we took our experience to Mexico, while in 2020 we were in Albania (again following an earthquake) and then in Beirut in Lebanon, after the fire that destroyed the port, also damaging historic buildings. and works from the museum of modern and contemporary art. Arriving a few months ago, in 2021 we were in Croatia. Other missions may also be carried out in the future, always in coordination with UNESCO which is based in Paris, where we have our own liaison officer ".

The international vocation is closely linked to the mandate of this task force and the Carabinieri of the TPC: "UNESCO has among its principles the fact that the artistic and cultural heritage is global. The World Heritage List of works for protection contains assets that are defined as the heritage of humanity understood as generations of the past, present and future ".

The action of protection and protection, therefore, is 360 ° and also requires adequate training on the part of those who deal with it: "The staff is selected every year through internal tenders within the Arma, to identify carabinieri of all levels who have aptitude for our work. Those who join are selected on the basis of the required qualifications and exams, after which they access a specific training course. At the end there is another exam which, if passed, gives the right to enter the section of the Protection of Cultural Heritage. Generally we prefer people who have investigative experience, possibly previous studies on the subject or in any case skills in the sector, in addition to knowledge of foreign languages ​​because international cooperation is really daily bread for us »explains General Riccardi.

In addition to the investigations, also conducted at an international level, and the initiatives of the Blue Helmets of culture, many of the activities have to do with the so-called "cultural diplomacy": "It is a very important aspect, which becomes even fundamental when the investigations they stop: it can happen when the crimes are prescribed or if judicial assistance is not possible, such as when there are no bilateral agreements. It can also happen when a crime is considered such in Italy, but not in another country involved in the investigation or is prosecuted in a different way. In these cases the path of cultural agreements is attempted thanks to which we can intervene within the Committee for restitution and recovery of the Ministry of Culture. To do this, we bring proof of the Italian provenance of the goods in question and a contribution to the achievement of these same agreements: these may be training courses for the countries to which we ask for the return of the goods, because most countries in the world do not have still specialized investigative units in the sector ».

The results are not lacking and recently at least two cases stand out. "In the international field it was exciting to" put your hands back "on the Bataclan door, that is on the stancil created by the master of street art Banksy for the victims of the massacre at the Paris club in 2015. It had been placed on the door of the emergency exit of the pub, which many had left during the terrorist attack. After being stolen, we recovered it in Abruzzo in an operation carried out together with our French colleagues, in June 2020. At that point we returned it to the French Embassy in Palazzo Farnese, on July 14 on the occasion of their national holiday " says the Commander.

But we should not forget the recovery, on a national level, of the Quirinal's pendulum clock: "In this case it is an object commissioned by Pius IX, when the Palace still belonged to the Popes. Placed in 1854, it had been discarded and then stolen: we found it in a villa in Mugello, Tuscany, owned by a collector, and finally returned to the President of the Republic, as a "gift" on the occasion of 25 December 2020, placed under the Christmas tree »recalls Riccardi.

These are two significant interventions concerning as many assets, whose number and information are found in the Italian database, which represents the largest in the world: "It is our most important investigative tool, which was born in 1980 and with the years it has grown to what it is today. Over time we have shared it with Interpol, the international police, and the general secretariat of Lyon, where the head of the artistic heritage section is a carabinieri officer from the TPC. At the moment our database has 8 million files: of these, 1 million 800 thousand relate to works to be searched ».

But the prospect is to be able to expand this tool and the possibilities of investigation: "By the end of 2022 and thanks to funding from the European Union, we will have the development of the software that will allow us to carry out an automatic search and comparison of images" . In practice, it will be possible to compare the images of the works in the database with what is discovered by the Carabinieri of the Cultural Heritage Protection on the web, on social media and also on the deep web: "For this reason we plan to further increase recoveries starting from the end of this year »concludes General Roberto Riccardi.

TECHNOLOGY AND GEOPOLITICS

TECHNOLOGY AND GEOPOLITICS - ATLANTIS

Nanotechnologies to rethink the role of Defense

Domenico Letizia

Nanotechnologies and nanomaterial treatments are rewriting the role of Defense and intensifying the economic opportunities behind this sector which is increasingly looking to innovation in the entire supply chain. The range of application of the related research projects ranges from metal-free firearms to extremely small missiles up to solutions that involve implants in the human brain and the use of nanoparticles as vectors of biological agents also for war purposes. Research and insights that can have positive and propositive effects also for the civil and occupational spheres. However, being a sector in full growth and in the military field worthy of attention, a group of experts from the European Commission suggests to draw, in the framework of nanotechnology research, a clear dividing line between civil and military use, to strictly limit the military application by subjecting it to strict controls and possibly to new targeted agreements on the subject. Nanotechnologies can rewrite the role of defense, generating new innovative dynamics and perfecting the sector. Airplanes, ships, vehicles and military machinery can be exposed to the most extreme climatic situations and to various corrosive factors: sand, snow, ice, salt, humidity. The innovative leader in this sector is the 4ward360 company, chaired by the entrepreneur Sabrina Zuccalà, which has launched a new treatment to protect defense systems, with a nano-silicon dioxide treatment capable of withstanding the most extreme temperatures and protecting the surface from corrosion, also reducing the accumulation of contaminants. On the occasion of the second edition of the Jesolo Geopolitics Festival, we are pleased to interview Sabrina Zuccalà, president of the 4ward360 company.

4ward360 is a leading company in the treatment of nanotechnologies and in recent months it has been focusing a lot of research on opportunities for the Defense sector with a new project and new ways of cooperation. Can we go deeper?

Materials sciences, electronics, computer science, biology, medicine, chemistry, aerospace and molecular engineering, environment: these are some of the areas of application of nanotechnologies, which represent (and will increasingly represent in the future) a real revolution in the daily life of each person. My studies and analyzes start from here and I decided to embark on a new design path and develop a new overseas brand. 4warDefence & Aerospace dedicated entirely to the Defense sector, but with one more goal, essentially looking beyond what our eyes normally see, so I thought of infinity and consequently of space.

President, what is meant by "nanotechnology"?

It is the ability to produce, study and exploit for application purposes finite systems at the nanometer scale (1-500 nm), of an inorganic, organic, biological or hybrid nature. These nanostructures, composed of a limited number of atoms or molecules, possibly organized in ordered matrices, possess particular properties compared to traditional materials. At present, nanotechnologies involve materials science: modifications at the atomic level lead to numerous changes in the properties of materials, which become stronger and more durable. With nanotechnologies it is possible to create and modify almost any type of material in the laboratory: tiny robots for nanomedicine, increasingly smaller and faster chips, in short, nanotechnology allows us to create an atomic lattice in the sub-layer of matter so as to protect it without modifying it. the structure or specific weight. Governments and industries have invested enormously in nanotechnology, so much so that it has become the strategic platform for the global control of every production and sector: food, health, IT and military. A cornerstone of the 21st century Green Economy.

The Aerospace sector anticipated us, can you explain us better how nanotechnologies can be used in this context?

In the aerospace division, nanotechnologies give the possibility to produce lighter and stronger materials that will be used to create faster and safer vehicles. Combustion engines will also benefit from parts that are more resistant to both mechanical force and heat. We can affirm that today nanotechnology allows us to protect air, naval and space vehicles from any type of contaminant; in fact, it absolutely protects against corrosion, saltiness, bacterial attacks, strengthens metals and materials giving them greater hardness and resistance to high or low temperatures, while maintaining weight and structure unaltered.

What are your thoughts on the future of the Defense sector in relation to cooperation and innovation?

The world and our geopolitical topicality are changing rapidly, at an unprecedented speed and intensity. In the social and scientific fields, the pace has changed and above all the quality and attention to strategic plans is changing. Defense should be on a par with international cooperation and innovation in the business environment in analyzing the criticalities of its supply chain. Furthermore, I believe in a European defense system that should commit itself to identifying the main global innovations and trends, assessing their implications and examining their relative innovative effects, affecting the political choices of our decision makers. Having a European willingness to engage, with the support and cooperation of our international strategic allies, with experienced partners to analyze and ideally address, together, common trends and challenges around the world, must be the keystone for address the common problems of the future of the defense sector.

 

 

FOCUS AND GEOPOLITICS

FOCUS AND GEOPOLITICS - ATLANTIS

Jesolo, 5-6-7- May 2022: the annual appointment on European and international geostrategic policies

 

The International Festival of European Geopolitics returns to Jesolo, for the second time, on 5-6-7 May 2022.

The primary objective is to inform and make complex topics accessible to the general public with a multidisciplinary approach (academic / informative / journalistic, economic / industrial, diplomacy and defense), believing that "every decision, choice and deliberation must be aware and based on knowledge of the facts ".

After the success of the previous edition, the festival - finally in the presence of the Antonio Vivaldi theater at the Lido - still sets itself the goal, as difficult as it is ambitious, of reflecting and making people reflect, deepen and discuss geopolitics with a multidisciplinary approach. The focus, which will have an Atlantic slant from a European point of view, will focus on the Italian role in international geopolitical strategies also in the light of the recent and dramatic events of Russia's aggression against Ukraine, which shake and reshape the world balance on a daily basis. and which certainly cannot fail to influence the interventions of the prestigious speakers.

The program will be dense and full of meetings: on the first day, after the greetings of the Authorities, the journalist Maurizio Molinari will speak, invited to present "his" thesis of an Italy "battlefield" central to the geopolitics of the next few times; followed by a lectio magistralis by the Rector of the University of Padua, Professor Daniela Mapelli, first woman elected to lead the Padua institution; finally Eleonora Lorusso will interview Benedetto Della Vedova, Undersecretary for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.

In the afternoon two panels: the first will discuss culture and image. The work was introduced by a message from Dario Franceschini, Minister for Cultural Heritage and Activities and for Tourism; then Antonio Monda, former Artistic Director of the Rome Film Fest; Francesco Profumo, President of Uni-Italia, former Minister of Education, University and Research; Roberto Riccardi, Brigadier General, Carabinieri Commander for the Protection of Cultural Heritage; Mario Pescante, former President of CONI and Pasquale Terracciano, Ambassador and Director General for Public and Cultural Diplomacy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. Following the intervention of the Captain of the Vessel and Commander of the ship Amerigo Vespucci, Massimiliano Siragusa, testimonial of Made in Italy. In the second part of the afternoon, Enrico Credendino, Squad Admiral and Chief of Staff of the Navy will alternate; Ernesto Galli della Loggia, Historian, Academic, Columnist; Francesca Mariotti, General Manager of Confindustria; Giulio Terzi di Sant’Agata, Ambassador, former Minister of Foreign Affairs to discuss how Italy has returned to the center of the Mediterranean and how the Mediterranean has returned to the center of the world.

Friday 6 May will be full of events: the morning will begin with a brief speech by the Hon. Vincenzo Amendola, Undersecretary with responsibility for Foreign Affairs, on the common budget and debt for the European integration process. Afterwards, the morning will be dedicated to the common European defense which cannot ignore the relationship between the European Union and NATO. The speakers will be Paolo Casardi, Ambassador and Co-President of the Circle of Diplomatic Studies; Giuseppe Cavo Dragone, Admiral and Chief of Defense Staff; Claudio Graziano, General and President of the Military Committee of the European Union; Sabrina Zuccalà, President of 4Ward360; Chiara Cardoletti, Representative for Italy, San Marino and the Holy See, UNHCR, UN Refugee Agency and Luisella Pavan Woolfe, Director of the Italian Office of the Council of Europe will present their thoughts on humanitarian crises, where the 'Italy has seen itself many times at the forefront and on the current position taken by the assembly of the European institution born before the Union.

To close the morning, the speech by the president of the Veneto Region, Luca Zaia, who will speak on the global health crisis and the Veneto case.

In the afternoon, two discussions relating to the economic-energy field: the first will focus on the energy transition. The interventions will try, in fact, to outline the need for this process, the opportunities it offers, without neglecting, however, a reflection on its costs and its limits, also in light of the current emergency caused by Russia. With the participation of Barbara Beltrame Giacomello, Vice President of Confindustria; Andrea Bos, President of Hydrogen Park; Lapo Pistelli, Director of International Relations of ENI and former Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs; Maurizio Melani, Ambassador, Co-President of the Circle of Diplomatic Studies and the economist Carlo Bellodi of the Luiss in Rome.

Finally, we will see how energy security depends on the sea with Giuseppe Bono, CEO of Fincantieri; Luca Sisto, General Manager of Confitarma; Giancarlo Poddighe, Vice President of the Geopolitics and Maritime Strategy Studies Center (CESMAR) and with Giancarlo Potenza, Managing Director Project Management & Ship Consultant (PMSC).

Saturday morning, the Festival will close with the Hon. Silvia Costa, Extraordinary Commissioner for the Government, who will present the redevelopment project of the former Ventotene prison - Santo Stefano in the center of European studies; while the Director of the European Commission Representation in Italy, Antonio Parenti, will speak on European geopolitics.

The conclusion of the three days will take place with a small concert for Piano and Voice by Antonio Vigani and Carlotta Melchiori.

Like last year, the festival is hosted by the journalist Eleonora Lorusso and exceptional moderators / journalists: Daniela Orsello, Roberto Papetti, Marta Ottaviani, Ettore Guastalla, Davide Giacalone and Fulvio Giuliani, Maurizio Cerruti, and, finally, Fabrizio Brancoli.

The festival, hosted by the City of Jesolo and organized by the Atlantis International Affairs Magazine, with the scientific contribution of the Council of Europe, the Circle of Diplomatic Studies of Rome, the Center for Geopolitics and Maritime Strategy (CESMAR). Hosted by the Vivaldi Theater, the event will also be broadcast in live streaming on the social pages of the Festival (Facebook: @FestivalGeopolitica) and of the Municipality of Jesolo (@CittadiJesolo and @ Jesolo.bibmingham).

For more information: www.festivalgeopolitica.it

 

RIGHTS AND GEOPOLITICS

RIGHTS AND GEOPOLITICS - ATLANTIS

European Day 2022

Atlantis and the Italian Office of the Council of Europe celebrate the European Day

 

The usual collaboration between the international business magazine Atlantis and the Italian office of the Council of Europe, which has existed for many years, also for 2022 will propose a European Day, of in-depth study and study, which will take place in Venice on May 27 .

The works will begin with a Training Course for the Order of Journalists of the Veneto based in the Palazzo Grandi Stazioni Region of the Veneto Representation Hall - Venice. The title of the first part of the course will be: The role of the journalist in the context of international crises. After registration (the course is reserved for members of the order of journalists), the program:

Greetings from the President of the Order of Journalists of Veneto, Giuliano Gargano.

Greetings from the Director of the Italian Office of the Council of Europe, Luisella Pavan Woolfe.

Introduction by Carlo Mazzanti editor-in-chief of the international affairs magazine Atlantis.

A historical case The hostage crisis of the Japanese embassy on December 17, 1996 in Lima, Peru. From the book Hostage for Always Operation Chavin de Uahntar, Giancarlo Poddighe, editor of the book and analyst CesMar and Luis Giampietri, author of the book and former Vice President of Peru (2006-11).

The second part will see the introduction: Journalism and Geopolitics, in the field and in the editorial office of the journalist and veteran Maurizio Cerruti.

Managing relations with the press during crisis situations caused by international terrorism, Giorgio Radicati, Ambassador, former Italian Consul General in New York during the attacks of 11 September 2001. This will be the title of the topic dealt with by the Italian diplomat, former guest of the Council of Europe in a conference held in Venice - Palazzo Labia on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of NATO.

In the afternoon, the presentation of the book Hostage Forever "Operation Chavin de Uahntar" is scheduled at the headquarters of the Italian Office of the Council of Europe Venice San Marco at 4.30 pm. After the greeting of the Director of the Italian Office of the Council of Europe, Luisella Pavan Woolfe and the introduction by Andrea Mazzanti, Publisher, Admiral Giancarlo Poddighe and the Peruvian admiral and politician Luis Giampietri will speak. Moderator Maurizio Cerruti. The book The story of Luis Giampietri, former Vice President of the Republic of Peru, takes us back to the terrible events that took place in Lima between December and April 1997, when a commando of the Túpac Amaru Revolucionary Movement (MRTA) entered the Ambassador's residence of Japan and took over 700 prisoners hostage, to raid special forces.

A compelling story, following the red line that separates hostages from affection and freedom, which leads to military intervention, with the risk of a massacre, poised between ethics and law.

A story that brings to the fore not only the experience lived by Giampietri and the other hostages but also a very current look at the world of information with its contradictions, the role of the judiciary and the rule of law.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOOKS AND GEOPOLITHICS

BOOKS AND GEOPOLITHICS - ATLANTIS

 RUSSIAN BRIGADES BY MARTA OTTAVIANI NOTHING MORE TIMELY

 

Why have we heard more and more of Russian trolls and bots in recent years? What are these cyber attacks and what strategy do they hide? The coming to power of Vladimir Putin in 2000 opened a new phase in the history of Russia, leading the country to nurture greater ambitions in the international arena that are no longer sustainable with the old strategies. The so-called 'Gerasimov Doctrine', which takes its name from the General who theorized it, is the starting point of the unconventional war that sees the internet, new technologies and social networks as its main tools. A hidden war, which is also fought in peacetime and which has, among its objectives, the manipulation of public opinion and the use of information as a broad spectrum weapon. In this book Marta Ottaviani illustrates how Moscow has managed to influence some major conflicts and international events through hacker attacks against many European countries and legions of trolls in the pay of the Kremlin, who work to increase Putin's popularity and discredit opponents. The goal is to filter the Russian version of events, overturning reality, even through a galaxy of media linked to Putin and his magic circle.

Of course, not even a talented journalist specialized in Turkey and Russia could have risen to the role of seer. So the book, just released shortly before the Russian aggression on Ukraine, saw an immediate and timely arrangement, in the light of the dramatic and shocking actuality of a war evidently prepared by what is described in the book. Marta Ottaviani seems to identify Putin as the Great International Provoker before US President Biden himself defined him no less drastically The Butcher. Marta Ottaviani is a regular moderator of the International Festival of European Geopolitics organized in 2021 and 2022 by the magazine Atlantis, in collaboration with the Municipality of Jesolo (Venice), the Veneto Region, Confindustria, the Council of Europe, the Circle of Diplomatic Studies of Rome, CeSmar (Centro Studi Marittimi) and the contribution of the main Italian and foreign institutions dealing with geopolitics.

 

Sconfinare The newspaper created by the students of International and Diplomati

Sconfinare  The newspaper created by the students of International and Diplomati - ATLANTIS

Sconfinare is a newspaper created by the students of International and Diplomatic Sciences of the University of Trieste, based in Gorizia. This self-produced and independent editorial initiative was founded in May 2006 by Davide Lessi, Andrea Luchetta and Emmanuele Dalle Mulle, and is regularly registered with the Court of Gorizia. Today Sconfinare has more than 25 members dedicated to writing various articles in the field of international relations. The work is supervised by three chief editors who are assisted by the director, Dr. Anna Miykova.

 

Gorizia has been home to Sconfinare for almost 16 years and the peculiarity of its border town dynamics have always been a great inspiration for the members of Sconfinare. The main idea of ​​the newspaper, as the name itself implies, is in fact to go beyond borders. Precisely for this reason it has always been the intention of the newspaper to publish not only in Italian, but also in English and Slovenian.

 

To date, the publishing project is divided into two different, but complementary, main activities: printed and online publications. The paper edition has reached its 53rd edition (published in December 2021) and the editorial team is already working on the 54th edition, which will be presented and distributed to citizens and the university community in May 2022. Each printed newspaper develops around a theme chosen by the staff of Sconfinare, consists of about 16 pages and around 400 copies are printed by local printers. The entire process of designing, drafting and publishing represents an opportunity for the acquisition and consolidation of skills for the editorial staff, as well as an opportunity to get in touch with the reality of local printers. Sconfinare also seeks to enhance the context in which it operates, highlighting the aspects of the Italian-Slovenian bilingualism that characterizes the area which is an integral part of the identity of some members of the editorial team. For this reason, the cover of the paper has always been printed in both Italian and Slovenian. To further emphasize the importance of foreign languages, an article in Slovenian and another in English will be included in this year’s edition. The paper also reserves a space on the cover for an explanatory graphic of the chosen theme, created by one of the students participating in the project. After an event that inaugurates the publication of each paper, involving the university and local citizens, it is distributed by the editorial staff in Gorizia, Nova Gorica, Udine, Trieste and other Italian regions.

 

The platform on which Sconfinare regularly publishes is its website, which is a fundamental tool for conveying articles quickly and efficiently to readers. The columns and articles deal with issues related to international relations, trying to adopt multidisciplinary approaches to attract a diverse audience. For this reason, alongside articles dealing with international current affairs, geopolitics and international relations, there are other interesting columns such as: Una Settimana in Dieci Notizie, Cultura, Conoscenza e Sapere and The English Breakfast. The first of these proposes a selection of ten important topics in order to be able to outline a summary picture of the international situation each week. While the second is a review of the main shows offered by the Teatro Verdi in Gorizia, with which the editorial team has been collaborating successfully for several years. The final column was born from the need to highlight the importance of English in the international arena, and for this reason, native speakers or students with an excellent command of English are dedicated to writing articles in the language. Other fundamental means of communication for Sconfinare are social networks: in particular in recent years the newspaper has increased its presence on Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. In fact, we believe that it is of primary importance to keep up with the technological evolution for the dissemination of information, in order to continue to be stimulating and interesting for the kids who come and go over the years and for all the readers who follow us outside the university environment.

 

However, Sconfinare also wants to be a promoter and supporter of cultural and community building events. Precisely for this reason it has participated in many projects and organized numerous activities. Emblematic was its assiduous presence at the Journalism Festival in Perugia and the participation in èStoria during the past years. Sconfinare has always organized conferences, discussion tables and meetings with prominent personalities, in order to create spaces for reflection and learning regarding particularly relevant topical issues. The last activity of this kind took place during the pandemic, when the editors organized the "Geopolitical Guide to the Balkans", a cycle of six meetings aimed at clarifying and reflecting on some dynamics concerning this area. Additionally, Sconfinare participated in "A Strategy for Trieste: a geopolitics course by Limes”, an initiative which, over the course of ten meetings, almost all held by experts under 35, aimed to touch upon the main players and issues of global geopolitics. One of the main objectives is also to create learning opportunities for editorial staff, many of whom, over the years, have decided to make journalism their profession. To this end, workshops focusing on the more technical aspects of communication and the journalistic profession are offered. Finally, a traditional appointment is that of Sconfinarte, a meeting point organized to share reflections around a central theme agreed within the editorial staff, starting with literary ideas, music and works of art.

 

Sconfinare's editorial team strives to be a cohesive group in which members have the space to express their interests and passions, and is an opportunity to get involved and learn within a stimulating and captivating context. The entire journalistic initiative of the students of International and Diplomatic Sciences aims to seek an understanding of reality under the banner of neutrality, responsibility and multidisciplinarity.

 

Translated by Giulia Rozzo

Contents

Contents - ATLANTIS

rolex 4/2021

rolex 4/2021 - ATLANTIS

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