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4/2020

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In this issue

In this issue - ATLANTIS

Pietro Calamia, Ambassador.

 

Sara Carbone, Researcher.

 

Domenico Letizia. Journalist.

 

Eleonora Lorusso, Journalist.

 

Giorgio Radicati, Ambassador.

 

Domenico Vecchioni, Ambassador, Editorial director of the Mazzanti Libri Global Observatory Series.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cover: Karl Popper

Cover: Karl Popper - ATLANTIS

Popper, Sir Karl Raimund. - Philosopher of science (Vienna 1902 - Croydon 1994).

Among the major philosophers of science of the century. 20º, exerted great influence for his fallibilistic conception of knowledge and scientific method. Although close to the positions of the "Vienna Circle", he did not accept the criterion of significance, which made the sense of scientific statements consist in their empirical verifiability and also tended to recover issues excluded from that as not pertinent to the scientific sphere, such sociological and historiographical problems. By emphasizing the logical impossibility of deriving universal assertions (scientific laws) from singular assertions describing empirical observations, P. radically questioned the value and very existence of inductive procedures.

After the Nazi occupation of Austria he emigrated to New Zealand, where he taught philosophy until 1945 at Canterbury University in Christchurch, and then, at the invitation of FA von Hayek, he moved to the London school of economics, where he taught logic and scientific method until 1969. He was also a visiting professor at various US and European universities. Appointed baronet in 1965, he was a member of the Royal Society, the British Academy, the Académie internationale de philosophie de science and, since 1982, a foreign member of the Lincei.

Since his first work, the aforementioned Logik der Forschung, on the basis of an asymmetry between verification and falsification, for which a number of confirmations, however high, is never sufficient to conclusively verify a universal assertion (prototype of scientific laws) while a single negative example suffices to invalidate it, he recognized in the "falsifiability" the characteristic of scientific theories (a characteristic that distinguishes them from metaphysical doctrines) and in the hypothetical-deductive method the typical procedure of scientific knowledge: rather than inductive generalizations (to which neo-positivistic verificationism is reduced), this would proceed through hypotheses that are subjected to "severe" attempts at falsification, consisting in testing their validity by checking the empirical consequences. The continuous application of this method, involving either the temporary "corroboration" (a term he prefers to "confirmation", which he considers compromised with inductivistic epistemology) of the hypotheses or the replacement of theories falsified by experience with new theories, is for him expression of the never definitive character of scientific knowledge, but at the same time guarantee of the growth of knowledge and of its indefinite approach to truth. Critical of both empiricism and conventionalism, Popper argued the priority of theoretical assumptions over observational data, which would have the function of controlling theories (critical rationalism), defending a theory of knowledge by trial and error which subsequently resulted in a evolutionary conception in which knowledge and scientific activity itself are considered continuous with natural evolution. The anti-dogmatism that informs Popper's epistemological theses was extended by Popper also to the social sciences and political philosophy. His objections to Marxism, considered as an example of "historicism" (The poverty of historicism, 1944-45, trans. It. 1954; 2nd ed. 1957, trans. It. 1975), that is, of that type of metaphysical doctrines which claim to predict the future course of history on the basis of specifically historical laws, different from those of the natural sciences and not subject to falsification. On the level of political philosophy, the fallibilistic conception of knowledge led Popper to a critique of totalitarianism (which would have its roots in Plato, Hegel and Marx) in defense of an "open society" (The open society and its enemies, 1945, 5th ed. 1966; Italian trans. In 2 vols., 1974) where every political solution is subjected to the scrutiny of criticism and where it is possible to experiment, through democratic systems, new solutions capable of correcting the errors of the previous ones. (from Treccani)

Focus: Djibouti: African economic hub with new financial and logistical perspect

Focus: Djibouti: African economic hub with new financial and logistical perspect - ATLANTIS

 Djibouti: African economic hub with new financial and logistical perspectives

Domenico Letizia

An extremely interesting country for the geopolitical and financial prospects of the African world is Djibouti. The activities of the Sovereign Fund of Djibouti (FSD), established in June 2020 to accelerate the development of the East African country, have officially started. The Fund, in the intentions of the government, will implement a series of financial and investment procedures to modernize the country's economy, to boost the growth of a competitive private sector and to foster the development of the public sector and logistics. which represents one of the essential tools for the efficient transformation of the country.

The creation of the Fund is part of the broader program called "Vision 2035", a long-term development strategy of the Republic of Djibouti with the aim of transforming the country into a high-level strategic commercial, logistic, port and digital hub. Established in the form of a limited liability company, with the State of Djibouti as its sole shareholder, the Fund aims to raise national wealth to leverage the ability of the state institutions' public machinery to invest rapidly. According to the government authorities, the Fund will allow better control of the projects, allowing to focus at the same time on the national and strategic interests of the country. The role that the Fund will ideally be called upon to play is that of a strong partner for national and international investors, supporting both growth and employment, in order to pursue a strategy of total economic diversification. Mamadou Mbaye was appointed to lead the Fund, with the position of General Manager, a personality known to the country's institutions for his previous experience as vice president of the Sovereign Fund for Strategic Investments of Senegal (Fonsis). This choice has also improved diplomatic and political relations between Djibouti and Senegal. The Fund was born from the strong will of the institutions to increasingly become a commercial and logistic hub for the entire local geographical context. As of 2013, the container terminal at the port of Djibouti handles most of the national and regional trade. About 70% of the port's activity consists of imports and exports with neighboring Ethiopia, which depends on the port as its main sea outlet. In addition, the port also acts as an international refueling center and transhipment hub. In 2012, the government of Djibout in collaboration with DP World began construction of the Doraleh terminal, a third port intended to further develop national transit capacity. A $ 396 million project that saw the capacity to accommodate 1.5 million 20-foot containers each year. Unfortunately, Djibouti's collaboration with DP World has not had a good response and the country's institutions are proceeding on the implementation of logistics through heavy investments and liquidity of state funds in the projects.

Djibouti was ranked the 177th safest investment destination in the world in Euromoney's risk ranking. To improve the environment for foreign direct investment, the Djibouti authorities in collaboration with various non-profit organizations have launched a series of development projects aimed at highlighting the country's commercial potential. The government has also introduced new policies in the private sector that aim at high interest and inflation rates, including reducing the tax burden on businesses and granting exemptions on consumption tax. Tourism in Djibouti is one of the country's growing economic sectors and is a sector that generates more than 60,000 arrivals a year, with its beaches and a favorable climate. The context is also suitable for later visiting the islands and beaches of the Gulf of Tadjoura and Bab al-Mandab. Most tourists come to Djibouti from Europe. Other visitors come from North America and Asia. The current president of Djibouti, Ismail Omar Guelleh, is adopting a multilateral policy that is very open to Western and Asian interests and there are many countries that look with interest to the country for the important strategic outpost it represents. The micro-republic, a former French colony until 1977, is nailed to the Bab al Mandab strait, a small maritime access of 32 kilometers from which 20% of world maritime traffic and 40% pass, moving towards Suez and the Mediterranean. of the planet's oil trade. Whoever controls Djibouti controls a vital artery of the world system. A position so important that, after the initial retreat of the interests of Paris, it was decided to transform, to the great satisfaction of the local rulers, Djibouti into an unprecedented multinational hub with the presence of the strategic interests of many governments. Some Asian countries have built roads, airports, hotels, shopping centers, aqueducts, and a new port at Obock, a 700-kilometer gas pipeline to the Ethiopian Ogaden fields and an oil pipeline to South Sudan are under construction. 2019, Emmanuel Macron flew to Djibouti to ensure investments and military support but, above all, he vouched for Abiy Ahmed's Ethiopia. To satisfy Addis Ababa for years anxious to find, after the independence of Eritrea, an outlet to the sea, the French president convinced President Guelleh to host infrastructures for an Ethiopian naval component, obviously all under the supervision of Paris which will provide means , technology and training.

A flood of money and investments that are allowing the country to launch and implement the "Vision Djibouti 2035" plan, the ambitious development program to transform the republic into an "East African Singapore, a regional economic, financial and commercial center and international ". Following in the footsteps of the Asian model, President Guelleh believes that the time has come to create a diversified economy "by exploiting the numerous opportunities, particularly in the fisheries sector, in tourism, in logistics, in new information and communication technologies". Interesting prospects that make Djibouti even more one of the main hubs between Europe, East Africa, the Middle East and South Asia and which, thanks to its still uncontaminated sea in the east, and the beauties of the African "Great Rift", could become a quality eco-tourist destination "using" also the development policies of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for the promotion of national tourism.

In the small state of Djibouti we have an important Chinese base located about ten miles from the US base, and a few miles away is the French one. Also in Djibouti, following the Chinese positioning, the Japanese arrived. Tokyo has chosen to make its presence felt both to protect humanitarian activities in the area and to position a contingent with containment and monitoring objectives. In addition, the presence of India is also expected, which will soon develop its own strategic move to contain China. We recall that India is present in the country with numerous humanitarian and assistance organizations. The strategic and economic importance of the country is easy to understand if we analyze the economic traffic that from the Suez Canal connected to the Mediterranean, to the Bab al Mandab strait, connected to the Indian Ocean, reaches the Red Sea, a vital artery for the world economy. Each year, over 10% of the sea cargo sails through its waters, including most of the Asian trade with Europe. The Council of Arab and African Coastal States of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden of Saudi Arabia includes all eight states with a coast, namely Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Jordan, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen, as well as Arabia Saudi, but not Israel, which has a seaport in Eilat. A very strong intertwining of geopolitical interests as well as important are the economic strategies that the president of Djibouti wants to use to improve the social conditions of the nation. On the other hand, the health pandemic has greatly worsened the current situation of the citizens of Djibouti and there are numerous reports from NGOs present in the country. In a recent interview, “The Caritas of Djibouti”, said Sister Michela of the NGO “Mediterranean without handicap”, “has always taken care of street children. It also receives 200 a day. They line up and wait for a meal to be delivered. But since the first cases of coronavirus were recorded in the country too, we have been able to welcome up to 80 to be kept in the parish all day to prevent them from contracting the virus ". A social and economic situation that helps to understand the diplomatic and strategic action of President Ismail Omar Guelleh.

Deseases in the World: Cerebral stroke

Deseases in the World: Cerebral stroke - ATLANTIS

Diseases in the World: Cerebral stroke

 

What is brain stroke?

Cerebral stroke is caused by the sudden closure or rupture of a brain vessel and consequent damage to brain cells due to a lack of oxygen and nutrients carried by the blood (ischemia) or to compression due to blood exiting the vessel (brain hemorrhage ).

What are the symptoms of stroke?

The main feature of ICTUS is its sudden onset, usually painless.

Only in cerebral hemorrhage there is often a headache. Typical symptoms are the sudden onset of a lack of strength, or tingling and a lack of sensation in an arm and leg, but also in one of them. It is also possible that there is difficulty in speaking or difficulty in seeing to one side.

Sometimes these symptoms appear for only a few minutes, then disappear completely. In these cases we speak of transient ischemic attacks (TIA), which are very important, as they can be alarm bells for a real ICTUS. They must be considered with the utmost attention. The patient must be seen urgently by the doctor.

The closure of the cerebral vessels can also be caused by emboli that depart from plaques of atherosclerosis in the neck (arteries, carotids or vertebrals) and from the heart or from atherosclerosis of the small vessels within the brain.

If the plaques of the carotids close the vessel by more than 70%, their removal by surgery is indicated.

The size of the problem

Cerebral ICTUS in Italy represents the third cause of death, after cardiovascular disease and neoplasms, and the first absolute cause of disability: a sad record.

In Italy, approximately 185,000 people are affected by cerebral ICTUS every year. Of these 150,000 are new cases while 35,000 are ICTUS that recur after the first episode.

The incidence is proportional to the age of the population: it is low up to 40-45 years, then gradually increases to rise after the age of 70.

In fact, 75% of ICTUS cases affect people over 65. The average incidence (that is, new cases recorded each year in the general population) is about 220 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, reaching values ​​of 280 cases in the population over eighty. This means that every year an Italian family doctor assists at least 4-7 patients who are affected by stroke and must follow at least twenty survivors with disabling outcomes.

10-20% of people affected by ICTUS for the first time die within one month and another 10% within the first year.

Of the rest, about a third survive with a degree of disability that is often high, so much so that they are not autonomous; about one third has a mild or moderate degree of disability that often allows them to return to their home partially autonomously and a third, the more fortunate or those who have been affected by a mild stroke, return autonomously to their home .

It is estimated that the expenditure for the acute phase (hospitalization) of ICTUS represents only one third of the total expenditure due to the disease. The higher the cost caused by the disability, which remains after the ICTUS due to the need for hospitalization in care facilities, job loss, family commitment.

The permanent disability of people who pass the acute phase of the disease determines in the following years an expense that can be estimated at around 100,000 euros.

From a personal and family psychological point of view, the costs are huge and not easily calculable.

What causes it?

The sudden suffering of nerve cells can occur for two reasons:

The closure of a cerebral artery that prevents the passage of blood. In this case, we speak of cerebral ischemia: the cells nourished by that artery suffer a heart attack and undergo cell death (or necrosis). Cerebral ischemia accounts for 85% of all cases of cerebral ICTUS. An artery can close because a clot (called thrombus) forms inside it or, often, on a pre-existing irregularity of the artery wall itself (the atheromatous plaque) and in this case we speak of cerebral thrombosis; or because it is reached by clots left from afar (called emboli) usually from the heart or from the large arteries of the neck, already affected by atheromatous plaques in this second case we speak of cerebral embolism.

The sudden rupture of a cerebral artery, usually caused by high blood pressure values. We then speak of cerebral hemorrhage. This represents only 15% of the cases of cerebral stroke. When an artery ruptures, brain cells suffer not only because they no longer receive blood, but also because the blood, under pressure, compresses the surrounding brain tissue. Cerebral hemorrhage is caused by the rupture of a small deep artery (typical of the elderly) or the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm (typical of the young). In both cases, arterial hypertension plays a crucial role.

There are also minor causes of cerebral ICTUS, which mainly affect the young, such as congenital defects of blood coagulation, rheumatological diseases, the presence of a small hole between the two atria of the heart (patency of the foramen ovale).

In subjects with patency of the foramen ovale, small thrombi may form at the level of the foramen itself, which then pass into the bloodstream and reach the brain, being able to give ischemic events.

This often happens in those who already have the tendency to a greater clotting of their blood (called thrombophilia); among the main causes of thrombophilia is the intake of the estrogen-progestogen pill, especially if migraine sufferers and smokers are taking it.

Diagnosis

For ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke in the acute phase, emergency / urgency is provided for:

Diagnostic framework (through specific investigations such as CT or MRI of the brain, MRI or CT Angiography, Ecocolor Doppler TSA and Transcranial Doppler)

Neurological evaluation (neurological scales such as the NIHSS and the modified Rankin scale) and general clinical.

Treatments

There is a therapy for cerebral ischemia that can be performed only in the first 3 hours after the event.

This therapy, called thrombolysis, can reopen the closed artery and save some of the affected brain tissue.

 

Ten rules for stroke prevention:

 

Prevention is better than cure

Stroke prevention strategies are most effective if they are implemented when the stroke has not yet occurred, ie in subjects "who are well". It is advisable to make periodic visits to your GP who will check your vascular risk profile.

 

Not smoking

Quitting smoking reduces the risk of stroke.

 

Practicing physical and sporting activity

Practice moderate physical activity on a daily basis, such as brisk walking for 30 minutes a day for most days of the week.

 

Check your body weight

Avoid weight gain with dietary measures and physical activity. In overweight subjects, weight reduction has positive effects on blood pressure, diabetes and blood fats.

 

Limit alcohol consumption

Avoid excessive alcohol intake. The intake of moderate quantities of alcohol (for men 2 glasses of wine or 2 cans of beer for women; these doses must be halved) can even have a protective effect against vascular diseases and ICTUS.

 

Correct the power supply

Reduce the consumption of animal fats and seasonings, increase the consumption of fish as a source of polyunsaturated fats, increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables, whole grains and legumes as a source of vitamins and antioxidants.

 

Limit salt in the diet

It is recommended that you limit your dietary salt intake to less than 6 grams. This is achieved by avoiding foods with a high salt content and not adding salt to the table. The recommendation is even more important for people with high blood pressure.

 

Check your blood pressure

In subjects with arterial hypertension, when dietary and lifestyle changes are not sufficient, the use of antihypertensive drugs is indicated. The recommended values ​​are lower than 140/90 mmHg and 130/80 mmHg in diabetics.

 

Check your blood sugar

Carry out periodic blood glucose checks to diagnose diabetes early. In diabetics, weight reduction, lifestyle changes and the control of other risk factors must be particularly careful.

 

Beware of atrial fibrillation

To prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation, anticoagulant drugs are recommended in patients over the age of 65 and in those who have already had a cerebral ischemic stroke. In other cases it is useful to take Aspirin. The choice of drug should be made by the attending physician.

 

A Window to the World Iran and the US at the crossroads, but Europe remains "th

A Window to the World  Iran and the US at the crossroads, but Europe remains "th - ATLANTIS

Iran and the US at the crossroads, but Europe remains "the weak link"

Eleonora Lorusso

Among the countries most affected by the first wave of the Covid pandemic, in economic crisis, the Islamic Republic is preparing for new relations with Biden's US, but also for the presidential elections of 2021, while according to the expert, Europe remains unable to provide a alternative answer

 

One of the first signs of a possible change of course in relations between the United States and Iran came from the words with which the Iranian president, Hassan Rouhani, greeted the American election result of 4 November. "Now an opportunity presents itself for the next US administration to remedy its previous mistakes and return to the path of adhering to its international commitments." Clear words, which testify to the desire to exert pressure so that there is a relaxation, if not a rethinking, of the US sanctions on Tehran. Much harsher and more explicit was the Foreign Minister of the Islamic Republic, Javad Zarif: «The American people have spoken. And the world is to see if the new leaders will abandon the disastrous lawless arrogance of the outgoing regime and accept multilateralism, cooperation and respect for the law ”. But is a US step backwards conceivable?

The first signs of openings with the US

"There’s a smarter way to be tough on Iran" ("There’s a smarter way to be tough on Iran"): this is how Joe Biden indicated his position on the issue last September at CNN. During that speech he said he was convinced that diplomatic dialogue could be resumed, going so far as to speak openly about a revocation of the so-called Muslim Ban, which effectively prevents the citizens of some Islamic states (primarily Iran) from entering the US. and at the same time a return to the Nuclear Deal, the nuclear agreement wanted in 2015 by the former US President, Barak Obama, signed by the 5 + 1 group (USA, UK, Russia, France and China plus Germany). Not only that: the then democratic candidate for the White House had announced his desire to intervene on sanctions in order to facilitate Tehran in the fight against the pandemic, which hit the Middle Eastern country hard.

«I believe that the best definition to date is that of a cautious optimism. There are many expectations on the Iranian side towards the Biden administration, but an immediate and effective change of course is unlikely. An easing of economic sanctions is likely, but it should be borne in mind that there are also symbolic ones, such as those implemented by the former President, Donald Trump, for example against the Foreign Minister, Zarif, or the Supreme Guide, the Ayatollah Khamenei. Biden, therefore, will have to try to reduce the tension, but also keeping in mind the internal pressures of American politics, which also looks forward to next year's Iranian presidential elections "explains Giorgia Perletta, Program Assistant of the Master in Middle Eastern Studies (MiMES) of the High School of Economics and International Relations (ASERI), where he holds the course of History and Politics of Modern Iran.

Iran towards the vote, who will lead Tehran?

Iran, despite very difficult economic conditions, is preparing for the presidential elections scheduled for June 2021, with a huge unknown: the current leader of the country, Hassan Rouhani, will not be able to reapply for a new mandate, after the first post in 2013, reconfirmed in 2017. So far its weight has been decisive above all in the "reformist" turn of the country. The first signs of a possible conservative turnaround came during the parliamentary elections last February: voter turnout was just 42.57%, the lowest since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, a sign of great dissatisfaction with the conditions of the country. On the occasion of the consultations, the conservative wing had already overtaken the moderate wing embodied by Rouhani.

Now among the possible candidates for the presidency, the name of Hossein Dehan has emerged, less known outside the national borders, but able to exert a certain influence especially among the military spheres. It is no mystery that the pasdaran aim to increase their power, including through this candidacy. Is a conservative turn imaginable? "There is certainly the possibility that Rohuani will be replaced by a less moderate figure coming from the military spheres. On the other hand, the parliamentary vote last February saw a massive increase in names from the Revolutionary Guards. This is not surprising because the second generation of Iranian politicians all come from the security and military apparatuses, it is a generational factor. The new political representatives were not trained in religious seminaries, as was the case in the past, but have a military background. I believe, however, that it is not necessarily true that a president of this extraction is necessarily hostile to the West and in particular to the United States. The opposition to Rouhani and his loyalists also goes into the logic of an internal opposition to Iran in the context of political competition, "explains Perletta.

Between pandemic and economic crisis

The effect of US taxes, in fact, could translate this year into a further decline in GDP after a reduction of more than 9% in 2019 and 4% since 2018, the year of entry into force. The data should not be surprising, if you consider that in 2017 energy exports (including oil) still represented 70% of the total. Since the sanctions came into force, the country has had to give up 1.5 million barrels of crude oil per day, quantified in a loss of 10 billion dollars in the period from November 2018 to the end of April 2019. Since then the situation has not been improved, indeed it has also suffered the effects of the health emergency from Covid. Iran was one of the largest outbreaks in the Middle East area, with a peak of 100,000 cases recorded only until mid-May, but the real situation could be much more serious than official estimates. In fact, Tehran has never opted for a total lockdown, as suggested by the international and Iranian health authorities themselves.

Furthermore, the pandemic has aggravated social tensions and not even international instruments to support trade, of a humanitarian nature such as Instex and Shta (respectively European and Swiss) have greatly improved the situation. Proof of this are the appeals for unity, launched among others by the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who last August had urged the authorities of Parliament, Justice and the Government to "remain united" to face the "devaluation of national currency, illogical price increases and problems deriving from US sanctions "adding:" Non-Islamic behaviors, insults and accusations are not allowed and are haram "that is prohibited by Islamic law.

The new relations with Europe (and Italy)

A change of course by Europe could also depend on the possible relaxation of relations with the United States, above all because the hard line of the Trump administration had also put EU partners in check, forced to choose whether to continue relations with Tehran or antagonize Washington. What could happen now?

"Europe has so far played a mostly diplomatic role, while it has not been able to activate tools to alleviate the effects of US sanctions. The proof was the fact that many companies, even in the absence of direct relations with the US, have interrupted their commercial relations with Tehran for fear of repercussions from the American side ", observes Perletta, who also has a PhD in Institutions and Policies at the Catholic University of Milan.

"I believe that Europe is the weak link in the chain, despite having expressed firm opposition to sanctions and expressed the diplomatic and political will to mediate: in fact, it has not managed to compensate for the American sanctions at an economic level and to impose a change of course. Now the ambition, desire and political will to return to the 2015 agreements remain on the European side, but the US presidency will certainly continue to play the predominant role in the success of the project ".

Italy is one of Iran's main trading partners. What should we expect?

"Our country, like the EU as a whole, must wait to understand how Biden will manage to re-enter the Nuclear Deal, even if he does not make any changes, because Iran has already repeated several times that it is not willing to renegotiate. It is true that in the meantime the Islamic Republic has returned to enrich uranium, but the decision was not presented as irreversible - observes the expert - Another fundamental aspect will be precisely the outcome of the Iranian presidential elections in June 2021. I believe that Biden does not want to expose himself before then and consequently Europe and Italy will also wait, while continuing to condemn the unilateral American withdrawal from the agreements and not demonizing the Islamic Republic, which is considered fundamental for the purposes of the balance and security of the Middle Eastern area ".

 

A Binocular on the World: Trump's future

A Binocular on the World: Trump's future - ATLANTIS

Trump's future

Giorgio Radicati 

Trump has finally allowed the transition to begin. Almost simultaneously, Biden introduced the country to some important members of the future administration he had appointed. Everything therefore seems to fall within the normal presidential succession as a result - apparently - of the joint pressure on "the Donald" by the more realistic members of his "staff" and his family.

Yet he has not yet admitted defeat, continuing the legal battles in various states (most of which have already been lost) and / or demanding a recount of the ballots in others. Moreover, the American system of the electoral college allows it. But never before had any other defeated candidate at the polls mobilized legions of lawyers and state public officials to reject the popular verdict.

In 2000, when the dispute between Bush jr and Gore had remained in the balance due to a troubled count of votes in Florida, "the iron republican" Antonino Scalia, President of the Supreme Court (invested in the matter), determined the victory with his vote of Bush for a handful of ballots (moreover contested). Gore, partly by his own decision and largely by the action of the Democratic Party, then put an end to the dispute, phoning his rival to congratulate him and thus hand him over the White House.

Today, this behavior does not seem, at least for the moment, to be practicable, because Trump uses innate arrogance as the best weapon, even against his own party. As indeed he did from the moment of his candidacy five years ago, ignoring the open ostracism of the leaders. Since then, no one has been able to oppose his diktats, especially after some successes in domestic (economic) and international (North Korea, China and the Middle East) politics. Today, however, supporting Trump, even if defeated, or not opposing him more than necessary, seems appropriate to the Party in view of the next electoral ballot in Georgia, on whose outcome the control of the Senate will depend.

Its slogan "America first" has taken hold of a large audience of citizens, especially whites, right-thinking, ardent nationalists, residing in rural areas, largely uneducated, disappointed in various ways, hostile to the central government, generally out of the ordinary political debate as well as chronically sensitive to the sound of the national anthem and to the waving of the stars and stripes flag, which invariably stands out on the roof of their houses. In short, all those that Hillary Clinton defined (with an extremely partial and unfortunate synthesis, which cost her the presidency) "a mass of indifferent, racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic ...".

This is the popular wave that Trump has never stopped riding and that has allowed him to obtain a number of votes higher than that he collected four years ago, a number that even the most astute pollsters had not foreseen. One of his great mistakes (perhaps fatal) turned out to have managed the pandemic badly, oscillating between absolute denial and fallacious tests of strength, demonstrating that he did not know how to dialogue with the entire electoral body for not even having tried to conquer at least a part of citizens undecided, that is, floating in the gray area of ​​voters.

The persistent, obstinate and unusual reluctance to accept defeat could be interpreted as the desire to make believe that only the electoral fraud have defeated him in order to immediately obtain a "bonus" to spend in the next presidential competition, when he can present himself as a candidate in search of compensations since already once unjustly defrauded of the victory.

However, there are also those who argue that Trump's effort to keep up the figure of a successful businessman who took the field to give a voice to a mass of dissatisfied citizens hides the will to defend himself with greater authority, once outside the prestigious building in Pennsylvania Avenue, from the accusations that hang on him and that pass from banking, insurance and tax fraud to the exploitation of the position of President to favor his own finances, accepting contributions from foreign governments.

Be that as it may, contrary to his predecessors, Trump does not seem, at least at this stage, to cultivate the intention to step aside, transforming himself into a platinum-coated lecturer, writer of autobiographical best-sellers and / or acclaimed "testimonial". In fact, everything suggests that he intends to remain in the limelight of politics at least until the next election, especially if some emerging young Republican MPs (in the front row, Senators Cotton and Hawley) fail to prevent him.

 

 

Giorgio Radicati

Giorgio Radicati, diplomat and writer. Former Ambassador to Prague and OSCE Representative in Skopje. Author of various historical novels, essays and articles on international politics.

 

 

Enterprise and Innovation

Enterprise and Innovation - ATLANTIS

Confindustria, along with Regione Veneto, has identified four areas of interest for the development of new innovative clusters, all strictly tied to local excellences: Smart Agrifood, Smart Manufacturing, Sustainable Living and Creative Industries. Over 70 university departments have taken part in the creation of the first clusters that now need to be consolidated and developed using a shared course of action. The singular control by Confindustria will be the strength of the Venetian clusters, able to inter- act directly with the companies and the political system in order to create a common ground capable of allowing a rapid growth of the new conglomer- ates, and plan and build the different network log- ics. The contribution of Confindustria will be the most important in the elimination of barriers and obstacles due to the existing and excessive bureau- cracy.

scoreboard 2019” study drafted by the European Commission, Italy and Veneto are placed in the moderate innovators category, far from the modest innovators european average. The study acknowl- edges that Veneto has remarkable center of world- class facilities, but also that they are not organized together and not completely integrated with the local background. It clearly comes to light the lack of a cohesion policy in our area capable of creating new workplaces, economic growth and sustainable development.

Clusters are the answer to this need. Being able to create a strongly innovation oriented production center, a virtuous cycle capable of creating wealth for the land: on one hand we have young promises that thanks to custom-made programs are able to join the companies with a substantial academic background; on the other hand, businessmen are able to being a part of a system that aims at making the access to innovations and research easier, not only in the specific area of their branch, but also in a more complex structure open to other specializa- tion areas influences. The individual companies will be able to share their knowledge and experience, working with other companies complementary to its own, and be able to ensure a bigger variety of servic- es to their clients, working as a real integrated sup- ply chain. The cluster aggregation offers the chance to get out of the local background and to work on the National and International markets not easily accessible for a small or medium company. Being able to speak as a single unit to clients and investors provides more chances to take part in the European calls and to undertake targeted sales actions, where the major investments are focused. This way a complete solution and also a great advantage with a simplified administrative procedure is offered to the client.

Interview with Fabio Marabese

My personal experience makes me really cooperative with other companies and institutions when there is a possibility of growing together. In the last years I could see the enormous potential given by the crea- tion of clusters tied to specific sectors. Along with President Carraro we are working with Universities and the Region to share successful experiences and projects that had major positive results, actively supporting the organization of new clusters and of a system capable of supporting them.

THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL EUROPEAN GEOPOLITICS FESTIVAL WILL TAKE PLACE IN JESOLO

THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL EUROPEAN GEOPOLITICS FESTIVAL WILL TAKE PLACE IN JESOLO - ATLANTIS

THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL EUROPEAN GEOPOLITICS FESTIVAL WILL TAKE PLACE IN JESOLO FROM 6 to 8 MAY 2021

The portal www.festivalgeopolica.it has been created

The City of Jesolo (metropolitan area of ​​Venice), the second Italian beach for annual tourist presence, will host the first edition of the International Festival of European Geopolitics. This is a very current event after the pandemic health emergency that involved (but is it over?) The existence of millions of people and citizens from all over the world.

Today - as perhaps never before - every event that concerns us is connected and conditioned by what happens in a highly globalized and interconnected world - The Festival of European Geopolitics is the first in-depth and dissemination event regarding geostrategic policies from the point of view not of the single national reality but from the ultra-state and European one. This does not mean ignoring the role and contribution of Italy with its specific history, its cultural and anthropological identity, its economic and productive interests, but inserting them in an enlarged continental context, as is indispensable, in this historical situation. The method - underlined the organizers Carlo and Andrea Mazzanti, director and co-editor of the international business magazine Atlantis - will be multidisciplinary.

Geopolitics is the discipline dedicated to the study of the relationships between homo politicus and space by combining a geographical-economic analysis of resources with a schematization of diplomatic-strategic relations between the great powers. (...) Geopolitics has always given great importance to economic resources in the struggles for territorial space as defined by the scholar Marco Cesa.

In general terms, geopolitics deals with the relationships between international relations and geographical factors, not only the physical configuration - such as the natural barriers formed by mountains and river networks - but also the climate, the demographic composition, the cultural aspects and the access to natural resources. Factors like these can have a major impact on so many different aspects of our civilization, from political and military strategy to social development, including language, trade and religion. Geopolitics affects all countries both at war and in peacetime, wrote British popularizer Tim Marshall.

 

 

The aim is to inform - Andrea and Carlo Mazzanti reiterated - The aim of the project is to bring together even apparently different worlds and sectors, to address a complex topic and make it accessible to everyone. Knowing to be free paraphrasing Luigi Einaudi. Since every decision, every choice and every deliberation must be aware and based on knowledge of the facts, information becomes an essential factor of private and public life.

The sectors and topics covered are the following:

- Diplomacy and International Relations - Economics and Finance - Environment - Cultural Heritage and Tourism

- Security, Defense and Intelligence - Rights, Humanitarian Defense, NGOs - Information and Journalism

 The Partners the Council of Europe through its Italian Office in Venice, Confindustria del Veneto and Venice and Rovigo, the Circle of Diplomatic Studies in Rome, the Institute of Military Maritime Studies / Morosini Naval Institute, the Italian Ministries of Defense, of Foreign Affairs and European Affairs, the Order of Journalists, the Veneto Region and the Ministry of Education of the Veneto The media partners foreseen: Rai / Gedi Group (La Stampa-Repubblica) /RTL102.5/RadioRadicale/ RadioVaticana / Il Foglio Effects permanent of the annual appointment The festival has a permanent effect that is not transitory. Like other festivals they have already produced elsewhere (Cernobbio, Giffoni, Mantua, Spoleto, Trento). The attention of the media, fans and onlookers will be attracted by an appointment that will be scheduled on time.

The first edition of 2020 was initially always scheduled for the month of May but the measures resulting from the national and international health emergency forced the organizers to postpone it annually.

It will start on Thursday 7 May with the first SESSION It will present Eleonora Lorusso, Journalist (Donna Moderna, Panorama, Radio RTL 102.5), with Carlo Mazzanti Director in charge of the international business magazine Atlantis and Andrea Mazzanti, Co-director

They had given their support to the event. Massimo Cacciari (video footage) Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Radio Editorial Director, Stefano Beltrame, Minister Responsible for Formation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ofra Fahri, Deputy Ambassador of Israel to Italy, Giulio Terzi di Sant'Agata, Ambassador and former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Luisella Pavan Woolfe Director of the Council of Europe Venice Office, Enrico Carraro, President of Confindustria Veneto Michele Boldrin, Economist Washington University, Paolo Scaroni, Manager, Giuseppe Cavo Dragone Chief of Staff of the Italian Navy, Leonardo Leso General Carabinieri on leave, formerly Military Advisor and Defense Attaché at the Italian Embassy to the UN - New York Paolo Casardi and Maurizio Melani Co-Presidents of the Circolo Studi Diplomatici in Rome, Elisabeth Lee Martines Consul General of the United States of America in Italy, Giuseppe La Bruna, Academy Director of Fine Arts of Venice, Marco Michieli, President of Federalberghi Veneto and Vice President National body Luigino Rossi, Entrepreneur and patron, Vincenzo Amendola, Minister for Relations with the European Union, Mario Caligiuri, University of Calabria, Arduino Paniccia, University of Gorizia, Vittorio Emanuele Parsi, Catholic University of Milan. Giorgio Saccoccia, President of the Italian Aerospace Agency, Luca Parmitano, Astronaut, Antonio Martino former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Defense. The names of the journalists who will be moderators of the various panels are absolutely prestigious. The first two days of the event will be valid as mandatory permanent training courses of the Order of Journalists while special attention will be dedicated to the world of school with two projects related to the festival.

In the meantime, with the approval and support of the Municipality of Jesolo, the Veneto Region and all the other partners, an approach has been started with the creation of the website www.festivalgeopolitica.it which, with the support of an important activity on social networks it will host interventions, interviews and comments on the geopolitical current events of many authoritative observers who will be present at the festival.

Premio Dispatriati 2020: La Dissolvenza della Memoria by Sara Carbone

Premio Dispatriati 2020: La Dissolvenza della Memoria by Sara Carbone - ATLANTIS

PORTS, TRANSPORT AND COMPANIES

 

An interesting page of Italian migration abroad is the one that focuses on analyzing the situation of ports, transport and companies that were the protagonists of this great exodus of the last century. Italian historiography has shown little attention to the events of emigration transport. Starting from 1901, it is the port of Naples that manages the bulk of departures, followed by that of Genoa whose number of embarkations is, however, equal to about half. The transport of emigrants, in 1901 and even later, is devoid of protective devices so that the emigrant becomes a particularly advantageous investment potential.

First of all the boats: real sea carts have been defined as the old steamers that cross the Atlantic, lacking in safety and hygiene. Cantù, head of the Health Services of the port of Genoa, wrote in 1895: The Italian navy is not without good steamers. The trouble is that in our emigration there is an ignoble monopoly in order to obtain the greatest possible profit from transporting poor material, almost as if the emigrants were very low commodities. The ships are obsolete; in 1897, their average age was 23; the modernization of these steamers-cemetery dates back only to the years immediately preceding the First World War.

Then the ports: Genoa, Naples and, to a lesser extent, Palermo are inadequate for the new needs of maritime transport between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The dry docks are narrow, there are few mooring piers, the lighting is insufficient to signal landings.

The law of 1901 establishes that the costs of food and accommodation for the emigrant awaiting boarding are to be borne by the companies. These try to keep expenses to a minimum and house migrants in real hovels. The most exposed migrants are women: they can suffer sexual abuse and violence or be shipped to countries other than those of destination. Only faint traces remain of the sufferings suffered by women in the embarkation ports.

What do the Olevanese migrants see in the port of Santa Lucia, in Naples? In what conditions are they traveling?

Unfortunately, not much is known about this aspect; testimonies are scarce in this sense. And when there are, they become vague.

A first series of data can be obtained from the testimony of Ciro Poppiti II who tells of his father. His friend Domenico Guadagno sent his father a gold coin worth 50 dollars to Italy. At the time of landing in America, Ciro Poppiti has only 20 dollars. Therefore, a calculation can be made of how much it cost not only a ticket to the United States of America, in 1907, but also the entire boarding operation, accommodation and ancillary costs. On this transitory moment in his father's life, Ciro II only writes: “He bought the passage” but he doesn't linger on the details. In the future, it will be difficult to find further information about the company to which Ciro Poppiti paid the boarding ticket and the board and lodging expenses at the port. The amount spent by Ciro Poppiti makes one think, when compared to the news provided by Alfonso Volzone in his interview for the University of Delaware: he claims that the ticket to America cost him 12 dollars. Furthermore, he is sure that he has not incurred ancillary costs. All he needed to leave, besides the ticket, was his passport. Admitting that the memory of both did not deceive them at the time of the testimony and, while admitting an increase in the cost of the ticket, it becomes difficult to accept the idea of ​​a cost more than doubled from the departure of Alfonso (1906) to that of Ciro (1907 ). It makes you think that in 30 dollars spent by Cyrus was contemplated will not be just the ticket for America but also all additional costs: costs to the port of Naples, overnight, passage, as the son says, and so on. If this were the case, we would have to think even more: the ancillary costs would exceed those of the cost of the ticket.

Other information still comes from the interview given by Alfonso Volzone. When he arrives in Naples to embark, the ship is not yet in the port. It is, for sure, an Italian ship but does not remember its name. It arrives the next day, that is, the day of boarding. Alfonso claims to have seen some passengers get off the ship before boarding it himself. While waiting to board the Florida, the passenger spends the night in the hotel. However, it should be pointed out: when the interviewer asks Alfonso where he stayed the night before boarding and suggests to the hotel, Alfonso answers a laconic yes and ends with a bitter laugh. Almost hysterical. Alfonso, however, points out that, to reach Naples, the train did not take him to Salerno but to Battipaglia.

The only people to have spent a few words on the actual trip were Alfonso Volzone, Domenica Maria Lambiase and Lidia Cicatelli who seems to have told some stories about her niece, Lidia Delle Donne.

When asked by the interviewer: "How were the conditions on board the ship?", Alfonso replies: "It was bad" and laughs. The conditions were "bad", Alfonso goes so far as to say. As for meals, a man went to get food and shared it with three or four other passengers. No drinking water was distributed and what was there was not good.

Bruno Maida writes about the journey faced by women: the journey is a test anything but simple: during the trip face promiscuity in which they are not accustomed, poor hygienic conditions, [...] to say nothing of the danger of life, given the risks of ocean crossings.

Domenica Maria Lambiase's grandson, John George Maiorano says his grandmother told him about a two-week trip, during which he witnessed a terrible storm at sea. An event that marked her considerably, since, according to the words of her nephew, the woman, although very introverted, has told the episode several times in the course of her life.

This, on the other hand, is what Lidia Cicatelli told the question: “Did your aunt, Lidia, ever tell you about the trip to America?”. After a little pause and a long sigh, Lidia Delle Donne says: “She just told me it was a disastrous journey. It was a very complicated journey and she was afraid of the waves when the sea was rough. " Then he adds what would have been the words of his aunt: “Bella di zia, I used to hide because I was afraid of the waves when the sea was rough. I got frightened, beautiful aunt. I was brave to leave. [The ship] It took a month or more to arrive ”.

When what Lidia Delle Donne said about her aunt's trip is reported to Ciro Poppiti II, he says: “I never knew this. My mother never told me. Who knows why she preferred to tell it to her niece, to my cousin Lidia. " As he pronounces these words, he nods thoughtfully and his eyes become bright. (from La Dissolvenza della Memoria by Sara Carbone Premio Dispatriati 2020)

Books: Il Potere che sta conquistando il Mondo

Books: Il Potere che sta conquistando il Mondo - ATLANTIS

Il Potere che sta conquistando il Mondo

Giorgio Galli, Mario Caligiuri

Rubbettino Editore, 2020 - 240 pagine

The old world order is rapidly transforming. Following on from the successful volume How the world is commanded, which demonstrates the prevalence of financial leaders over political leaders, the authors analyze the role of Chinese, Russian, Brazilian, Indian and Islamic multinationals. Relations with sovereign wealth funds and crime, tax havens and energy policy are then examined. And so far, nothing new because the models of liberal democracy are replicated. Meanwhile, however, China is becoming an artificial intelligence giant, hegemonizing Africa, the continent of the future. In a complex situation rather than the market, it is again the state that is the protagonist in the 21st century, since these multinationals are largely subordinated to national governments. Will the declining West be able to identify strategies to avoid succumbing in the eternal struggle for power? This is the fundamental question that this book tries to answer.

 

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