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Current affairs: the war fronts and their implications
Ukraine: A Conflict That Tests International Legality
The conflict in Ukraine, with Russia's annexation of Crimea and the ongoing conflict in the east of the country, represents a serious challenge to international legality. The international community is called upon to respond to clear violations of the principle of state sovereignty and territorial integrity.
Israel-Palestine: A History of Conflict and Violated Human Rights
The conflict between Israel and Palestine is a constant source of concern for the international community. The continued violence has significant implications for human rights, with many voices raising concerns about violations of civil rights and international humanitarian norms.
Azerbaijan: The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict and Its Aftermath
The conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh has recently brought attention back to the region. The violence and territorial disputes have highlighted the challenges of managing conflicts and human rights violations.
Global Implications and Responses of the International Community
The presence of over 50 war fronts in the world highlights the complexity of maintaining international legality and the protection of human rights. In this context, it is crucial to analyze how the international community responds to these challenges.
International Responses: Efforts and Limitations
International organizations such as the UN are called upon to play a crucial role in resolving conflicts and promoting human rights. However, limitations in actions and resolutions can slow progress.
Diplomatic and Humanitarian Efforts: The Keys to a Sustainable Solution
Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts play a key role in mitigating the consequences of conflicts. The involvement of non-governmental organizations and diplomatic actors can help provide humanitarian assistance and work towards long-term solutions.
Conclusions: Challenges to Face and Hopes for the Future
In conclusion, the analysis of these war fronts highlights the need for a global commitment to address violations of international law and human rights. While challenges are numerous, collective efforts can lead to a more just and peaceful world. By working together, the international community can overcome current difficulties and build a future in which the rule of law and human rights are universally respected.
Institutions and Tools for the Protection of Human Rights
International Court of Justice (ICJ): Guardians of the Rule of Law
The ICJ, based in The Hague, plays a key role in resolving disputes between states and issuing advisory opinions on legal issues. Its authority is based on the consent of states, and its jurisdiction is limited to matters submitted by them. However, its contribution to the definition of international legality is significant.
International Criminal Court (ICC): Addressing Crimes Against Humanity
The ICC was established to prosecute individuals responsible for crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes. Its presence is crucial in ensuring that those who commit serious human rights violations are held to account before an international tribunal.
Other Protection Mechanisms: Commissions and Agreements
Numerous international commissions and agreements work to monitor and protect human rights. Examples include the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the United Nations Convention Against Torture. These bodies provide forums for reporting and examining human rights violations.
Analysis of Successes and Challenges
Successes in the Field of Human Rights Protection
There have been cases where international institutions have been successful in prosecuting human rights violations. For example, the ICC has issued convictions for war crimes, providing a form of justice internationally.
Challenges and Limitations
However, there are also obvious challenges, such as the lack of universal adherence to such institutions and the difficulty in enforcing decisions. Political disputes and a lack of cooperation from some states represent significant obstacles.
Conclusions: Prospects for the Future
In conclusion, while there are institutions and instruments dedicated to the protection of human rights, it is essential to address the challenges to ensure a more effective application of international law. Strengthening membership, improving international cooperation and addressing shortcomings in existing mechanisms are crucial steps to ensuring a future in which human rights are universally respected.
Contemporary Challenges
Violence and Human Rights Violations
The persistence of armed conflicts in various regions of the world continues to generate violence and violations of human rights. The human cost of such conflicts is enormous, with thousands of people affected and serious consequences for the safety and well-being of communities.
Discrimination and Inequality
Discrimination based on race, gender, religion or sexual orientation persists in many societies. These forms of discrimination undermine the fundamental principles of international law and hinder the achievement of a just and inclusive society.
Limited Access to Education
In some parts of the world, access to education is still limited, especially for girls and women. This disparity in access to education represents a violation of basic human rights and contributes to the perpetuation of the cycle of poverty.
Implications on International Legality
Global Responses to Challenges
Addressing these challenges requires a global response. The international community must work together to promote peace, prevent violence and eliminate inequalities in access to fundamental rights.
Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
NGOs play a crucial role in monitoring and reporting human rights violations. Their commitment on the ground is often fundamental in bringing international attention to crisis situations and in providing humanitarian aid.
Progress and Positive Initiatives
Education as the Key to the Future
Education is a fundamental key to overcoming many of today's challenges. Investing in education, especially for girls, not only promotes international rule of law, but also helps create more balanced and sustainable societies.
Diplomatic Efforts for Peace
In many regions affected by violence, diplomatic efforts for peace are underway. Conflict resolution and the promotion of diplomatic solutions are essential to stabilize regions and ensure respect for human rights.
Conclusions: A Global Call to Action
In closing, understanding and addressing contemporary challenges are critical to the advancement of international legality and human rights. Through global collaboration, concrete efforts and collective commitment, the world can progress towards a future where peace, justice and respect for human rights are the norm.
Conclusions: Looking to the Future
International legality and the protection of human rights are complex challenges that require constant commitment from the global community. In reflecting on what has been discussed, some key considerations emerge:
The Need for Universal Commitment
Addressing human rights violations requires universal commitment. No country or institution can address these challenges alone. International cooperation and mutual respect are key to creating a world where human rights are universally protected.
Challenges as Opportunities for Improvement
Current challenges also represent opportunities to improve and strengthen existing mechanisms. Learning from past mistakes and adapting to new challenges will help create more robust and resilient systems.
Key Role of Education and Awareness
Education and awareness are key to change. Promoting understanding of the principles of international law and human rights from an early stage in education will help create knowledgeable and engaged global citizens.
Hope in a Future of Justice and Peace
Despite the challenges, there is hope. The joint efforts of the international community, supported by individuals, organizations and governments, can lead to a future where international legality is respected and human rights are defended without compromise.
In conclusion, the path towards international legality and the protection of human rights is long, but every step forward is crucial to building a more just, equitable and peaceful world.




Adriano Benedetti
The Jewish-Palestinian tragedy, after having struck the border areas of Israel adjacent to the Gaza Strip, is now devastating Gaza City with hundreds of victims every day. The uninhibited determination of the Israeli army responded to the ferocity of Hamas. The rules of modern conflict do not seem to apply in the current situation of Middle Eastern "fire and iron", when it is precisely the civilians, on both sides, who are the defenseless targets of the war fury of the two contenders. How could we reach such levels of brutality?

The program of the Israeli far right. The current Israeli government, led by Benjamin Netanyahu in power for a year now, aimed at internal political level to alter the balance of power through a fundamental reform aimed at reducing the independence of the judiciary: provoking the militant revolt of the opposition parties ( and an important part of civil society) that has characterized Israeli life in the last year. Less evident, but equally pursued with inflexibility, was the plan to make the occupation of the West Bank irreversible, in view of the final unification of the Israeli territory under the flag of David. The belief was that in the end the resistance of the Palestinian population (about 3 million) in the West Bank would be somehow quelled and reabsorbed in such a way that, despite a significant, restless, unregimented Palestinian component, Israel could aim to achieve its unity historical-political. On the other hand, the continuous, unstoppable growth of the Israeli population in the Occupied Territories, which now well exceeds 700,000 units (including the portion living in Jerusalem) appears capable at first sight of making the demographic shift irreversible. As for Abū Māzen's Palestinian Authority, it could also be maintained but progressively deprived of all power, to the point of becoming completely irrelevant.
In this scheme, the existence of a Palestinian Gaza constituted an "excrescence" that did not coincide with the perspective outlined above, but it was hoped that with the passage of time, ways would be found to ensnare any desire for political autonomy of the "Strip" in order to make it compatible with the existence of “Greater Israel”.
In this optimistic vision, surprisingly, no relevance was attributed to the Hamas phenomenon whose potential and ambition had somehow been underestimated. This is where one of the mysteries of the current conflagration gathers. How is it possible that Israel did not take into consideration the signs, however fragmented, of the imminent attack by Hamas, to the point that a large part of the Israeli troops had been moved from the borders with Gaza to the West Bank to keep the outbreaks of insubordination there under control developed?
The great responsibility of Netanyahu's government was that of not having identified in time the signs of Hamas's growing offensive preparation which could have been grasped through minimal use of information sources: the presence of thousands of armed Hamas militants and the construction or the strengthening of preparations, often underground, in preparation for the attack. Hamas' plan had been concretely in the process of being implemented for at least a few years and all of this was incredibly underestimated if not completely ignored by the Israeli authorities. There is no doubt that this "lightness" will constitute one of the most difficult points on which Netanyahu's defense will be.
2. The ongoing massacre. The Hamas attack on Israeli territory which took place on 7 October, catching the Israeli government completely unprepared and unaware, caused at least 1,400 victims of all ages, almost all civilians, through actions often characterized by shocking cruelty. It was a well-organised coup, structured with unprecedented methods (such as the use of tiny piloted aircraft) which certainly achieved the results that the creators had set themselves. Furthermore, approximately 240 Israeli and foreign hostages of all ages were captured and deported to Gaza, who Hamas intends to use for various purposes with the aim of bringing division and conflict within public opinion in Israel. At the same time, a "deluge" of missile attacks was unleashed which Tel Aviv's protection systems are not always able to intercept and neutralize.
The Israeli reaction, after the first two days of confusion and disorganization, was certainly effective in eliminating Hamas infiltration and preparing the counterattack in Palestinian territory. The northern part of Gaza (Gaza City) which is the object of the offensive, has been under relentless bombardment from the ground, from the sky and from the sea for many days with apocalyptic destruction. The confirmed deaths, according to Hamas statistics, are close to 9,500, of which a good 40% are children. The objective is to destroy the hundreds of kilometers of underground walkways where the hostages were almost certainly taken and which constitute a shelter and redoubt that are not easily conquerable. In the meantime, Egypt has allowed the otherwise impassable border to be opened to the south of the Strip to allow several hundred foreigners and wounded people coming from inside Gaza to pass through.
It is worth noting that the methods and results of Hamas' incursion into Israel are beyond any discipline of regulated conflict. Likewise, the Israeli counterattack, with the dramatic escalation of destruction of a vast residential area, is difficult to reconcile with a criterion of offensive self-limitation that tends to limit civilian casualties as much as possible. We are in the presence of a total war that does not tolerate weaknesses or humanitarian reservations.
Meanwhile, an attempt led by the United States is taking shape, aimed at encouraging a suspension, at least for a short period, of the conflict in order to bring relief to civilian populations. This is one of the objectives, difficult to achieve, pursued by the American Secretary of State, Antony Blinken, who landed in Israel this weekend: the aim is certainly supported by European governments who face growing discomfort among important portions of their respective public opinions internal. The potential European uncertainties became apparent, among other things, on the occasion of the non-binding vote of the United Nations General Assembly (after the Security Council had proven incapable of taking a decision due to the negative vote of some permanent members), when A resolution was presented by Arab countries which, without including any mention of the Hamas attack against Israel, calls for an immediate suspension of hostilities. While Israel and the United States voted against and around forty member states (including Italy) abstained, notably France, Spain and Portugal instead gave their support.
Beyond these "UN" skirmishes, the international alignment in favor of the Palestinians is now clear. Iran is in the front row (whose possible responsibility for preparing the attack against Israel should be ascertained in the future), substantially all the Arab countries, a good part of the Third World countries and above all Russia and China who saw it as an opportunity to put the West on the defensive.
The anti-Israel uprising has blown up and put in "mothballs" for an indeterminate period the strengthening of the "Abraham Accords", freezing the prospect of their expansion to Saudi Arabia, a freezing which was certainly aimed at in particular by Iran.
The overall situation in Israel risks becoming even more complicated and dangerous given the daily attacks of hundreds of missiles launched by Hamas against a large part of Israeli territory, no less than the still punctual but widespread insubordination shaking the West Bank, came by adding the threat posed by Hezbollah militias who have been pounding Israeli positions from the Lebanese border for several weeks now. The possibility of full involvement of Hezbollah - whose organic connection with Iran is beyond question - has been hinted at, but for the moment not confirmed, by the undisputed leader of the same Shiite organisation, Hassan Nasrallah, who, during a threatening fiu speechme, has just made a point of affirming full solidarity with Hamas, Iran's involvement in the preparation of the attack, and its irreducible hostility against Israel and the United States. But if the threatened intervention were to materialize, Israel would find itself under attack from the North and the South with an explosive potential at its center in the West Bank: a situation of extreme danger that would recall the existential uncertainties of 1948.
3. An ambiguous future. Israel's belonging to the West is beyond question. His democracy, articulated and combative, rightfully places him in our world. The enormous tragedy of the Shoah paradoxically transformed it into the heart of the West. If it were to ever perish (a scenario that is completely unlikely at the moment) it is possible that the slow decomposition of the Western world would begin. So it is clear that the United States and Europe must be aligned to defend it. Furthermore, it is enlightening, upon closer inspection, that the heart of the international coalition opposed to Israel, beyond the Arab world, coincides with the galaxy of authoritarian and dictatorial countries that has gathered in ostracising Ukraine in its struggle for survival against Russia.
It is precisely by virtue of this underlying solidarity that the United States and Europe must work to lead Israel to adopt a different attitude towards the Palestinians. Hamas may also be destroyed and Hezbollah possibly defeated; yet the Palestinian problem cannot be avoided. This is why Netanyahu's plan - who will have to step aside at the end of hostilities - is no longer feasible and achievable. All that remains is to give strength to the "two peoples and two states" hypothesis, developed and cherished in the 1990s and then forgotten. It is an extremely difficult hypothesis to realize but the only one that offers the prospect of even partial reconciliation between Jews and Palestinians. We must look at this desirable goal with determination and a residue of trust, aware that in its absence the Israeli-Palestinian territory will once again fall into the atrocious spiral of hatred, war and the annihilation of every principle of humanity.

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In this issue

In this issue - ATLANTIS

Adriano Benedetti, Ambassador.

Domenico Letizia, Journalist.

Eleonora Lorusso, Journalist.

Andrea Lunesu, Editor of Sconfinare Review.

Agata Lucchetta, Collaborator.

Cristina Pappalardo, Journalist.

Romano Toppan, Professor.

Luca Volpato, Italian Office Council of Europe.








The "new" psychological wars between conflicts and electoral appointments
on both sides of the Atlantic

Eleonora Lorusso

The European election deadline is upon us. In six months, between 6 and 9 June 2024, we will vote for the renewal of the European Parliament, which in turn will appoint the next president of the Commission and the members of the EU executive. The electoral campaign has already begun and arrives in conjunction with the campaign which, on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, will see the choice of the new occupant of the White House. In such a delicate context from a political point of view, the crisis in the Middle East broke out - in addition to that in Ukraine. Also in this case it is a conflict on the doorstep of Europe and which also sees the United States involved on the front line. It is a context in which the communication of dramatic events has played and plays a leading role, becoming a further element capable of influencing the vote. Politicians know this well, so much so that the subject has been theorized, studied and increasingly refined over the years.
It is no coincidence that among the first newspapers to question the issue was the German Die Zeit with an eloquent title: Truth or propaganda? The reference is to the narrative of the clashes on the field, after the brutal attack on Israel on 7 October and the harsh reaction of the Tel Aviv forces against Hamas in the Gaza Strip. "The doubt is well founded, especially when it comes to operational theaters where opinions count a lot: acting on propaganda, possibly making friends with the journalist and the media, becomes fundamental", comments Marco Cannavicci, military psychiatrist, former consultant at the General Directorate of Health Military of the Ministry of Defense. But psychological warfare is not a new phenomenon and there is no need to bother with the potential of artificial intelligence to understand its purposes and strategies. The first to talk about it was Sun Tzu, a great Chinese military theorist who lived in the time of Confucius (between 551 and 479 BC) and author of The Art of War. After him, Napoleon also, on the occasion of the Ulm War, reflected on the importance of communication in the success of military operations, so much so that decades later the United States coined the term PSYOPS, psychological military operations. These are techniques that were refined during the Second World War, then in Vietnam, Korea, the Gulf War up to the conflict in Ukraine, where the weight of propaganda increased. Today more than ever, thanks to social media, the messages and images arriving from theaters have taken on a decisive role in public opinion. «The objective is precisely to influence the perception of those who observe from afar. We want to convey the idea that what we observe in a single image is the reflection of everything that happens in the operational theater. Choosing the right videos, photos and captions shifts the direction of opinions in the Western world. This is why Hamas studied every detail in planning the October 7 attack, aiming for the so-called "valuable targets", those that have the greatest international emotional resonance: young people, children and vulnerable people. Kidnapping a child has a greater effect than an adult or a military person. From the beginning, Hamas carefully chose how, where and when to intervene, and subsequently who to kidnap and who to gradually show on video among the hostages", explains Cannavicci, an expert in the training of intelligence personnel and communication with the local population in theaters resignation.
PSYOPS, therefore, have become fundamental, at any latitude. The Russians understood this very well, and today they are considered true "hidden" actors in various contexts, well outside their borders, very skilled in propaganda techniques. Although military psychological operations have been theorized in the USA, where they have been defined as "a set of products and/or actions that condition or reinforce the opinions and emotions of specific targets to induce them to behave in such a way as to support political objectives national”, «in recent decades those who have most developed the psychological techniques of conditioning the adversary have been the Russians, who have become masters of propaganda, starting from the studies of Ivan Pavlov» observes Cannavicci. The reference is to the physiologist and Nobel Prize winner who wrote the study on reflexes and conditioning/learning conducted on dogs. “The Russians have long understood how cartoons and messages repeated over time can reach and influence anyone,” underlines the military psychiatrist.
Our thoughts, therefore, turn to the possibility that this type of technique could influence the outcome of the vote, both in Europe and in the United States, while we are already grappling with the effects of mediatization of recent conflicts in which propaganda is already hero. Among the effects on public opinion, we must not overlook the fear of terrorism, which has once again appeared and generated anxiety in the heart of Europe in a way that has not happened since the 2015 attacks. «This is the greatest danger not only because it creates fear in the citizens of Old Continent, but because the images arriving from Israel and Gaza trigger an emotional response even in Muslims present in Europe: they push them to take action to avenge what they consider to be an abuse. In fact, they awaken the so-called "lone wolves", who carry out attacks alone, do not belong to any group and are therefore not monitored, supervised or reported by the intelligence and police forces. They move on personal initiative, but in the name of the people they consider oppressed. It's a very high risk."
To this it must be added that in Europe there was the illusion of having removed the specter of war and civilian deaths. «Today the use of military instruments is not welcomed precisely because it leads to victims, so alternatives are sought. The problem is that in these conflicts there are none, other than negotiation. But, in the case of Israel, every form of agreement between the parties has been attempted in vain since 1967. International organizations and the Vatican aim for dialogue and peace, but in doing so they risk making the problem chronic - observes Cannavicci - Until the Second World War conflicts ended with the victory of one side over the other, now a conclusion is never reached : at a certain point an agreement is sought but, by not reaching the definition of final positions, in fact the situation becomes chronic, condemning it to persist and recur cyclically over time", concludes Cannavicci.



The new global citizenship is born at school

In Italy, Veneto is a pioneer in the study of international relations and geopolitics in schools.

Andrea Mazzanti

Starting from this school year, thousands of high school students will be able to study International Relations and Geopolitics. In fact, thanks to the success achieved with the first 2022-2023 edition of the PCTO INTRODUCTION TO GEOPOLITICS - which concluded with the participation in the third edition of the International Festival of European Geopolitics held in M9 - Museo del '900 in May 2023 and at which a large representation of students and tutors from the participating institutes took part, as a result of the memorandum of understanding (DGR. 1507/2023) between the Veneto Region, the Veneto Regional School Office and the M9 Foundation, this year the Path has been extended free of charge to all the Higher Institutes of the Region. It is the first time that a school system, in this case a regional one, systematically approaches the study of international relations and geopolitics, making it an integral and rewarding part (thanks to the credits of the Path for Transversal Skills and Orientation - PCTO) of the educational offer. The entire project was presented during a press conference held in Venice, at Palazzo Balbi, headquarters of the Veneto Regional Council, in the presence of the Regional Councilor for Public Education, Elena Donazzan, the Director of the Regional School Office, Xxxx Bussetti, to the President of the M9 Foundation, Michele Bugliesi, to the Director of M9, Serena Bertolucci, to the Ambassadors and co-presidents of the Circolo di Diplomatici Studi, Paolo Casardi and Maurizio Melani, and to a delegation of school managers representing the over 500 schools in the Veneto potentially involved.
The Introduction to Geopolitics Course for the 2023/2024 school year will take place between 6 February and 11 May 2024. Proposed by the M9 Foundation, thanks to the collaboration with the Rivista di Affari Internazionali Atlantis (creator and implementer of the project), the Circle of Diplomatic Studies based at the Farnesina in Rome, Confindustria, Council of Europe, Europe Direct, M9 District, for a total of 39 hours divided between online meetings (19 hours) and participation in the Festival remotely or in person (20 hours).
The program aims to provide secondary school students with the basic elements for understanding current affairs relating to geopolitical profiles, topics and dynamics. The approach to this topic will allow students to further develop an interest in internationalism and will help them build a critical sense of current events. Nonetheless, the project presents itself as an introduction to the themes that will be discussed during the fourth edition of the International Festival of European Geopolitics (9 to 11 May 2024 at M9) in which students will be invited to take part with an active role in management of the press office and/or reception.
Among the teachers who will alternate in the training modules: Ambassadors of the Diplomatic Studies Club, International Relations Operators and Experts, Journalists, Economists, Historians, Analysts, Managers and Entrepreneurs, Representatives of Institutions.
The modules covered concern the fundamentals of the history of international relations; Fundamentals of International Law and International Organizations; Defense, its evolution and international relations; Geopolitics and multidisciplinary approach; Information and Intelligence; Specific topics of international current affairs (Economy, Industry, Development Strategies, etc.; as well as specific preparatory workshops for the International Festival of European Geopolitics in which students will participate both in person and remotely thanks to the live streaming of the event.



Mary Peltola: the Democratic congresswoman of the Arctic and the defense of the indigenous communities of Alaska

Domenico Letizia

The recent and lively annual convention of the Federation of Alaska Natives, held in Anchorage, closed the proceedings by presenting an appeal to the United States Congress asking for the promotion of sustainable fishing with no impact on the economy and the life of local communities. The Alaska Native Congress expressed high praise for the speech and political action of Democratic Congresswoman Mary Peltola, the representative of Alaska and Native people in Congress. Peltola is the first Alaska Native representative to be elected to Congress and her main mission is to make federal politics and Washington institutions understand the importance of implementing and supporting the economic, social and cultural model of the population of the only Arctic state in the United States of America. Congresswoman Peltola was born in Anchorage, Alaska in August 1973, growing up in the communities of Kwethluk, Tunttuliak, Platinum and Bethel. As a college student, she worked as an experienced and accredited herring and salmon testing technician within the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Peltola studied at the University of Northern Colorado and subsequently took advanced courses at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Alaska Southeast and the University of Alaska Anchorage.
Her political visibility began with her election to the Bethel City Council in 2011, holding that position until 2013. Subsequently, the congresswoman undertook an important path as a lobbyist for Alaska, assuming the role of Executive Director for the Inter- Kuskokwim River Tribal Fisheries. During the year 2022, Peltola was one of three candidates to enter the general election, out of the 50 who ran in the primary elections to succeed Don Young, becoming a representative of Alaska in the United States House of America. Her name came fourth in the primaries and she managed to qualify for the elections, with great media coverage as she was the only Democrat from Alaska to have made it to the vote. Her success came after her victory over former Republican governor Sarah Pallin and her campaign's support from many Republicans disillusioned with local political maneuvering.
Peltola's political action is linked to the interests of local communities in Alaska, garnering recognition and appreciation even among the state's republicans. In February of this year, Peltola announced that she had chosen Josh Revak, a former Republican state senator, to manage his office in Alaska. On the other hand, Peltola's staff in Congress also includes Republicans and his chief of staff, Alex Ortiz, was his predecessor Don Young's most important assistant. The life of the Arctic Democrat is linked to the traditions and customs of the Native American tribes. Peltola is a member of the tribal organization “Orutsararmiut Native Council” and is the first Alaska Native to win a seat in Congress. “She IS overwhelming. And it's a great feeling. I am very grateful that the people of Alaska put their trust in me,” Peltola said in an interview with the Washington Post shortly after her victory.
However, Peltola's popularity is a major obstacle for the Republicans, despite the great advantages that derive from the bipartisan choices made by the congresswoman. Numerous Alaska Republican activists and candidates are attempting to repeal the state's ballot system, arguing that it can allow a Democrat to win even if a majority of voters go Republican on the first ballot.
The ability to represent all the interests of Alaskan society is the real keystone of the Democratic congresswoman. “Mary understands that this is not her place forever, but a way to represent Alaska in the House. It's up to her to prove to Alaskans that she's the right person to fight for them in Washington. And that's what she's focused on: growing Alaska's opportunities and potential,” Elisa Rios, Peltola's political campaign manager, recently said. An important issue at the center of the congresswoman's campaign is that of fishing and the sustainability of artisanal fishing.
In the North American country, fishing is the largest source of livelihood both for its inhabitants and for the state, one of the most precious resources as well as a deeply rooted tradition that involves not only fishermen but also processors, scientists, activists environmental and law enforcement. There are thousands of small family businesses, made up of citizens who work responsibly observing Alaska's strict fishing laws, an activity for which the State does its utmost to provide the resources for a good performance of the economy. This happens not only by using sustainable fishing methods, but also by applying the scientific information that is constantly provided by the authorities.
In Alaska, all parts of the catch have always and traditionally been used. The bones are used in pet food, fertilizers and to remove heavy metals and radioactive waste from the soil, while the spleen, stomach and eggs represent a true delicacy in the preparation of sophisticated specialities. The skin, then, has healing properties, and is useful in the textile sector and, finally, biodegradable plastic is obtained from the scales. The guarantee on the sustainability of Alaskan fish products is given through the certification which also indicates their traceability. Alaska joins the Responsible Fisheries Management (RFM) and the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). Both certifications guarantee supply chain tracking. Approaches and new technologies for the North American seafood supply chain which in Alaska become priority political topics for the economic and sustainable growth of the Country.



Qatar: geopolitical hologram or soft power octopus?

Andrea Lunesu

Independent since 1971 by concession from Great Britain, the small emirate extends over a small appendage of the vast Arabian peninsula. Politically it is based on a semi-absolute monarchy, governed by the Al Thani dynasty since 1850, which does not allow political parties and provides a jurisdiction still based on Sharia.
From a religious point of view, the majority of the population professes Sunni Islam, with however a Shiite minority made up of important families which allow for greater dialogue with the Iranian neighbor. Relations with Tehran are in fact the basis of Doha's political-economic strength: the two interlocutors, in fact, share control of the largest offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) field in the world, the "North Dome", placing the country as second largest gas exporter in the world after Russia. This allows us to speak of Qatar as a "rentier state", that is, a state whose income is strongly dependent on the export of a material of which they have abundant availability: the hydrocarbon sector alone makes up 60% of the country's GDP and the 85% of total exports.
Speaking of the exercise of soft power in relation to Qatar, it is important to highlight the numerous agreements that following the war in Ukraine have projected the country's resources as an alternative to Russian LNG. The agreements stipulated with Berlin in the last period or the joint venture for the expansion of the North Field plant through ENI are exemplary.
Onshore South Pars/North Field shared with Iran (credits: Wikimedia Commons)
The money accumulated thanks to fossil energy has pushed Qatar to be increasingly ambitious on a global level, opening up the opportunity to profile itself in various theaters of international politics but at the same time making it necessary to consider the idea of diversifying income possibilities, taking advantage of the numerous and very different interlocutors with whom he interacts.
An example of soft power in this sense is the role played in the Israeli-Palestinian crisis. Doha has always been a staunch supporter of the Palestinian cause: in 2012 the emir visited the new Gaza managed by Hamas, allocating large sums of money to help the civilian population (and not only). The Hamas leaders themselves were hosted in offices through which they were able to continue to have the contacts necessary for mediation for the release of hostages, as confirmed by the release of two American girls at the end of October and by the warm US thanks to Doha for the urgency with which she moved.
Tamīm bin Ḥamad Āl Thānī, emir of Qatar (credits: Wikipedia)

This diplomatic strategy, based on the country's economic power, has even allowed the emirate to keep its embassy in Kabul open from 2021, allowing the start of meetings between the Taliban and the States for the withdrawal of troops, to host summits of Al Fatah or Chechens hostile to Moscow
On the war level, Qatar presents itself with a completely different face: one of the main military allies is Turkey, which guarantees the military security of the country through some bases opened on site since 2014, all this in exchange for economic support for the initiatives of Erdoğan's foreign policy (especially those in Syria). Another important player in this scenario is certainly Washington, with which Doha has agreements regarding military contracts for 12 billion dollars, in addition to the concession of American installations in the territory, such as the Al Udeid air force base.
Furthermore, since 10 March 2022 Qatar has become a “MNNA” (Major Non-NATO Ally), which makes the emirate a reliable NATO interlocutor and a country with which it is possible to undertake an ever closer partnership, supported by the visit of Al Thani in Washington in autumn 2022.
Al Udeid Air Base (credits: Wikimedia Commons)
Furthermore, the country further differentiates itself from its neighbors in the Persian Gulf thanks to the considerable media weight of Al Jazeera, a network founded in 1996, still in the hands of the royal family, which plays an active role in foreign policy strategies. The prime example of this was the coverage of the Arab Spring between 2010 and 2013, fueling the media dimension of the event and corresponding to long-standing Qatari support for the Muslim Brotherhood. At this point, it is not surprising that among the clauses for the resolution of the diplomatic crisis within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) there was the imposition of closing the Egyptian editorial office of the network, in addition to Riyadh's decision to launch in 2003 Al Arabiya News Channel, in direct competition with Doha.
Al Jazeera logo (credits: Wikipedia)

The need to diversify revenues, as already mentioned, is at the center of the political prospects of the emirate which, through the Qatar Investment Authority, has demonstrated its ability to move in all sectors, creating a strong system of interdependence. The fund controls 17% of the Volkswagen group, significant shares of Barclays and Agricultural Bank of China and a significant portion of Porsche and Sony. Other significant holdings are those in English and American real estate (the shares in Canary Wharf and 10% of the Empire State Building, for example), in Heathrow and St. Petersburg airports, in Credit Suisse, Royal Dutch Shell and Harrods.
In Italy, the first steps were taken in the hotel world with the Hotel Gallia in Milan, the Gritti Palace and the Saint Regis in Venice and the Excelsior in Rome, or in the construction sector with regards to projects concerning the neighborhood of Porta Nuova in the Lombardy capital, making agreements within a few months with Hines Italy and Unipolsai and ensuring that the Emirates brand was associated with the Bosco Verticale designed by Stefano Boeri. Furthermore, the fund has also had its hands in the healthcare sector through a collaboration with the Gemelli Polyclinic in Rome and the Mater Dei in Olbia.
The Qatari strategy is sprawling: it moves everywhere and does so with such ease and versatility that it does not arouse excessive media fury towards itself. Although over the years many of the situations to which global partners have turned a blind eye are coming to light (see the kafala system, accusations of lobbying during the Trump administration or the most famous "Qatargate"), the emirate seems to show no signs of giving in and indeed appears increasingly confident in its path to establish itself as one of the main players on the international stage, even if appearance often counts more than reality.



Confindustria Veneto:
manifesto on the economy of culture and tourism

Romano Toppan

"For too long the range of values provided
by culture attributes and artifacts has not
been recognized: their role in job creation,
social cohesion, tourism, and so on.
Cultural preservation and renewal are not
a luxury good, something to be done
later. It is a productive sector."

James D. Wolfensohn
Past-President World Bank


An innovative strategy:

Confindustria Veneto proposes a strategy of attention and interest for an innovative and sustainable development model, oriented towards the valorization of culture and tourism. In this transition phase from manufacturing to mind-manufacturing, the economies of the intangible are growing at surprising rates and creating value in many new and unprecedented forms: our country and, in particular, our Veneto Region, have potential unattainable precisely in the sectors of economies oriented towards quality, knowledge, culture and tourism. The ability to formulate adequate strategies to enhance this potential is lacking, due to the weakness with which the country and its organizations and institutions possess a long-term vision and due to the lack of cohesion around the priorities with which to undertake a path economical consistent with our competitive advantages.
They determine the positioning of a nation or territory in its reference system and the data relating to the economies of culture and tourism have for some time now expressed a proven certainty that Italy has a significantly higher potential in this field than all other countries. possible competing nations.
And within our nation, we can affirm that Veneto excels among the top positions, both in terms of cultural potential, both product and process, and in terms of infrastructure capable of enhancing it.
However, sensitivity, awareness and active responsibility in the face of this potential and this endowment are still inadequate with respect to both demand and supply.

Elements of strength and weakness

The originality (which cannot be reproduced or relocated) of both urban, rural and mountain landscapes, the inimitable brand that the Serenissima Republic still leaves us as a legacy today, arousing widespread and continuous attraction and admiration in every part of the world, including the large emerging countries such as China and the Arab countries.
The cosmopolitanism of the Serenissima had achieved a dialogue with these areas of the world that is still unmatched today, the prestige of some events of global resonance, such as the Venice Biennials or the events of the Arena of Verona.
But our region also has elements of weakness: faced with this "capital of the intangible" expressed by culture and tourism, there is still no adequate management capacity, both in terms of human capital (skills) and in terms of coordinated governance and integrated among all territorial and institutional actors, as the region has been able to express with its specific development model based on the synergies of coalition economies, such as production districts and other similar forms of negotiated local development planning.

Need for a resolute and urgent strategic “twist”:

Precisely for these reasons, Confindustria Veneto felt the need to make a strategic "twist" to its action towards some major objectives, especially connected to scenarios which have changed profoundly in the last ten years, and are destined to change even more rapidly in the near future, to make themselves available to their region and other territorial actors and propose the "transferability" of the coordinated and cohesive management model, which has decreed the success of the manufacturing industry, to the new cultural and tourism industries.
The keystone of a new form of competitiveness for the entire region rests precisely in the speed and congruence of this "transfer", which implies as its natural consequences the adoption of management models of both cultural heritage and events, throughout the range that the economy of culture offers today: from monuments to events, from creative activities to exhibition ones, from changes in the intended use of architectural heritage, such as Venetian villas, castles, fortresses, monasteries and industrial and port archaeology, to the recovery of unexposed cultural assets, which lie in the warehouses of museums, families, dioceses and the armed forces.

It is necessary to give a true and profound innovative twist to all this

The data that qualified bodies such as the World Bank, the OECD, UNCTAD, UNESCO and others provide on the growing impact of culture on the Gross Domestic Product of nations they are now accredited and give a secure foundation to every possible political strategy compliant with these scenarios.
Equally, the data also applies to tourism, for which the guarantee offered by the data, which the World Tourism Organization has been providing for at least thirty years, is now totally clear and no longer offers any element of uncertainty to those governments who wanted to give impetus to policies of progress and the spread of employment and well-being promoted by tourism, which has become and is becoming a real priority driver for many countries.
It was also the case for Italy, although the country has lost, from the 1970s (in which it occupied first place in the world for arrivals, presences and revenues) to today, 6 positions, slipping towards seventh place.
It still is for Veneto, which, being the first Italian region in the sector, risks, however, becoming a large satellite of a nation that is moving away from the leading positions.

Managerial and effectiveness requirements

Both in culture and in tourism, the need for integrated coordination on the territory and between institutions must also satisfy the requirements of managerialism, efficiency and management capacity such as to cover the approximate forms that have characterized the two sectors up to now, and to make the culture and tourism industry is that field of action of the best skills and know-how of excellence which have been and are the secret of Venetian development in the classic industrial sector.
In this way, our Region would be placed within a wealth rating which now increasingly evaluates intangible assets and is inspired by the new criteria or indicators of development and well-being which are about to be introduced in many countries, as in the recent case of France, with the document relating to the modification of the traditional indicators of the Gross Domestic Product, with the introduction of indicators closer to the value of social well-being, knowledge and competence, and happiness.
Furthermore, also in terms of job creation, which represents one of the most pressing and dramatic problems of the current social and economic moment, this change in strategy is decisive and well founded on the terrain of the economy of culture and tourism as engines of value creation , there would be obvious and easily understandable labor intensive parameters: to have a fairly precise idea, calculated by researchers who deal with the economics of culture, just think that 1 billion euros invested in hard sectors such as oil generate around 300 jobs new ones, while the same amount, invested in the cultural economy and its connected supply chains, generates around 12,000, i.e. forty times as much.
If we then think about the repercussions on the creation of businesses, which is perhaps the phenomenon or effect that triggers a self-regeneration of job creation, the picture is completed. Therefore, the transfer of these skills from the classic industrial sector to these new economic sectors is possible, it is necessary, it is urgent, and it makes the "entrepreneurial" fabric available to use its own qualities and excellences to obtain significant profitability also from the new economies, as are those linked to tourism and culture.

6. Towards a common and shared Manifesto

Confindustria Veneto proposes to take, together with all the other economic, social, cultural and institutional components, some steps towards a "Common Manifesto towards an innovative strategy" whose fundamental principles are inspired by the following ethical and political premises:

1. First of all, a critical review of the traditional laws of the market is needed, because many economic laws of the market specific to classical industry must now and in the future be carefully subjected to a review, such as the law of demand, the law of relationship, still widely perceived as real, natural and obvious, between increased income and happiness, the relationship between tangible and intangible assets and other options of this nature;

2. Secondly, it is urgent to define a coherent logical framework with at least six essential dimensions:

sustainability, as a basic inspiring principle, considering the fragility of the environmental and cultural heritage and the dangers that the economic impact of their valorization can have, so that it does not become exploitation without adequate criteria and precautions,
quality systems, as a form of acquisition of continuous improvement, of comparison of good practices at local, national and international level, as a path towards excellence and towards the satisfaction of beneficiaries,
contestability and competitiveness, as a rule of governance that does not allow, especially in this sector of common goods, positions of rent, monopolies or other forms of hoarding or exploitation in terms of pure patrimonialization or personal privatization of goods and values that are by definition the assets and values of the community, and instead gives space to the merits of those who are truly capable of effectively and efficiently "managing" the assets to be valorized, including "state-owned" ones,
coalitional governance: culture and tourism are sectors in which heroic and solitary entrepreneurship is unable to achieve significant results, while we need to grow in the ability to work as a team, to express ourselves in terms of agreed and integrated programming,
well-being systems, as a scenario of an economy of happiness towards which all the great centers of current economic culture are devoting growing attention and increasingly accurate and proven scientific studies, demonstrating that outside of a final framework that contributes to growth of happiness, any other form of economic development is not, in itself, credible,
models of intercultural dialogue: globalization entails risks, but also opportunities, above all it facilitates the circulation of ideas and cultural values of other social contexts, with the tangible benefit of open-mindedness, appreciation for different cultures, higher syntheses of meeting (and not clash) between civilizations, as the experience of the Serenissima has historically highlighted in ways that are still surprising today.
3. Thirdly, there are two specific "managerial" aspects for which CONFINDUSTRIA VENETO offers a targeted and accredited contribution, and they are:
- The managerial culture: distinguishing the skills relating to protection and conservation, on which the business world cannot interfere, as they are rigorously assigned to the regulations of the so-called common goods, it is however clear that having to also promote the culture of valorization and management of cultural heritage, the typical approach of management sciences enter fully and rightfully into this sphere, where culture and tourism offer space for the creation of "businesses";
- The culture of patronage: the commitment of industrial companies towards patronage also constitutes one of the most important points to aspire to have a service role in the field of these new economies, especially in the economy of knowledge and in the economy of culture, not only in terms of "benevolence" or liberal donation, but also and increasingly, in terms of investments and more profitable forms of allocation of financial resources achieved with the classic manufacturing industry, i.e. an intelligent "diversification" consistent with the scenario of the future.



Love without borders

Cristina Pappalardo

The Trojan War was one of the first examples of a strategic military operation aimed at the total conquest of a territory and the subjugation of a people from every socio-political and economic-cultural point of view. This war, fought towards the end of the 2nd millennium BC. C. between the Greeks and the Trojans in the city located on the coast of the Anatolian Peninsula, in present-day Turkey, was won by the former to the detriment of the latter, but was apparently caused by the betrayal of Queen Helena, wife of the King of Sparta Menelaus, with Prince Paris Trojan son of Priam. To get his wife back, Menelaus gathered all the armies of the Greek cities and, thanks to the help of his brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, convinced the bravest warriors to venture near the western coast of Anatolia and besiege the city for ten years . Troy was located at the mouth of the Dardanelles and was universally recognized as one of the most prosperous cities on an economic and geopolitical level. In fact, until that moment no enemy had ever managed to cross its mighty walls and conquer it. The city represented a point of reference for not only maritime trade. It was a viaticum of goods and important exchanges of minerals and precious stones also because it was located at the crossroads of the passages from Asia to Europe, at the entrance to the Black Sea, in a region of silver mines. It seems unlikely that the war between two great civilizations and peoples began "out of love". It is known for certain from literary sources and archaeological finds that Troy really existed and that the Trojans often clashed with the Greeks. The war between the Greeks and the Trojans was a traditional, epic, no holds barred war. Historical courses and recurrences lead us today to observe, in the international panorama, at least three types of wars: traditional, unconventional and civil. The war between Russia and Ukraine is a traditional war because it involves two states whose armies use weapons and tactics to conquer clearly recognizable territories marked by borders. It is a symmetrical war as the opposing forces appear to have similar power. Proof of this is the fact that the conflict between the two states is at a stalemate and that from a "special operation" it is slowly transforming into a "low intensity conflict". The war between Israel and Palestine, however, is unconventional because it is based on a succession of attacks, clandestine operations, armed guerrilla warfare, intelligence and operations by paramilitary forces that are unbalanced between the parties. It also broke out to establish clearer and more defined boundaries. The wars in Congo and Myanmar are considered civil because they involve factions belonging to the same nationality. Dozens of rebel groups who use guerrilla strategies and whose war devices are supplied by foreign nations who aim to take possession of the wealth of their subsoil take part in the riots. The civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo is a war forgotten by social media as is the one in Myanmar. That of Troy, however, is handed down from generation to generation and studied in history books. Yet the wars previously mentioned have some elements in common. The first and most noteworthy of all is the boundless love of each people involved. The geopolitical identity of these territories was in the past and is still perpetually violated by third-party international interests that have very little to do with the internal dynamics of these nations and with the historical memory of their peoples. We must ask ourselves how much love for humanity and the desire to guarantee a future for the new generations prevails over the interests of a few politicians who have everything at their disposal, but who have given little on the field and not just in battle.



Letters about the world presented at Più Libri Più Liberi, the fair for small and medium-sized Italian publishing

Traditional annual event at Più Libri Più Libri 2023 edition, Sunday 10 December from 4.30 pm with the presentation of the book Lettere sul Mondo 2023, a collection of diplomatic letters from the Circolo di Studi Diplomatici. The event, which was attended by the co-presidents Ambassadors Paolo Casardi and Maurizio Melani, was well attended with interesting interventions by the diplomats present, including Laura Mirachian and Giuseppe Morabito. In addition to the contents of the publication, now in its fourth edition by Mazzanti Libri, the collaboration with the Circolo di Studi Diplomatici was also underlined for the creation of the International Festival of European Geopolitics which next year will take place on the 9th, 10th and 11 May 2024 and for the PCT with Venetian high schools, sanctioned by the agreement between the Veneto Region, the 900 M9 museum of Mestre-Venice and ML, aimed at providing high school students, without distinction between high schools and professional institutes, a first approach to international relations and geopolitics. The training project - underlined Casardi, Melani and Mazzanti - is destined, after an initial experimental phase and a second launched first in the Veneto region, to become a far-sighted educational project of national scope.


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